Friday, November 4, 2011


1762 - Colonial British authorities proclaim  the granting  to Filipino residents of Manila of the  rights enjoyed by their other subjects, a month after the Spanish colonial authorities surrendered Manila to the British invaders; the  rights granted on the condition that Filipinos  renounce allegiance to Spanish colonial Simon  de Anda y Salazar include the free exercise of  Catholic Christianity and exemption from  tribute and forced labor;  two days earlier,  Dawsone Drake became the British governor of  the colony Philippines nearly a month after the  British forces successfully attacked and invaded  the Manila harbor areas of Tondo (Manila) and  Cavite as a development in the Seven Years War between Spain and Britain.

1841 - Filipino religious leader and martyr  Apolinario de la Cruz, also known as Hermano  Pule,  is executed by colonial Spanish  authorities; de la Cruz , whose dream of being  a priest was frustrated by the discriminatory  colonial policies of the Spanish friars, co-founded the brotherhood Cofradia de San  Jose that was initially a Catholic religious  brotherhood that swelled in membership; de la  Cruz's execution came following a failed  rebellion as the religious group's reaction to  friar attempts to suppress the Cofradia. 

1901 - One year and none months into the  bloody and protracted Philippine-American War  (1899-1914), the Bald Eagle invaders pass  Sedition Law, Act No. 292 through the  imperialist body Philippine Commission; the  law, passed about half a year before the imperialist  United States President Theodore  Roosevelt will falsely  announce the official  end of the  "insurrection," despite ongoing guerrilla  resistance warfare against the enemy American  invasion, was made in the bid to suppress agitations for independence in the still-limited  areas of American control  in the Southeast  Asian archipelago.

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