Friday, September 30, 2011


1876 - (Mrs.) Sofia E. Reyes-de Veyra, future,  outstanding Filipina civic leader and social leader, educator, and secretary of the Association Feminista, is born in Arevalo, Iloilo City; Sofia, despite her lack of formal education, would found the first training school for nurses in the Southeast  Asian archipelago, and in her travel to  the United  States in the early 1900s, would help disseminate accurate information about the Philippines and the Filipinos to neutralize the disparaging, untruthful  propaganda made by U.S. imperialism advocates in  relation to the Philippine-American War  (1899-1914).

1889 - "Filipinas Dentro de cien aƱos" (The  Philippine a Century Hence), essay of Filipino reformist, patriot, and polymath Jose P. Rizal, is  first published in the Filipino reformist propaganda newspaper "La Solidaridad" in Madrid, Spain during  the period of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines; therein, Rizal exhorts Spain to give more rights, to the Filipinos "to grant six million Filipinos their rights, so that they may be in fact Spaniards"],  warning that failure to do so  could make them lose the Southeast Asian  archipelago.

Higinio O. Benitez, Malolos Congress
Representative & American collaborator

1911 - Higinio Benitez, member of the First Philippine Republic's Revolutionary Congress who rather quickly collaborated with the imperialist American invaders, is reassigned as associate judge to the colonial Land Registration body; Benitez,  despite being named Laguna's representative to the Malolos Congress, unpatriotically chose not to fight  during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914),  even serving as (appointed) secretary of the  American sponsored Supreme Court under the leadership of another American lackey and illustrado collaborator Cayetano Arellano.

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Thursday, September 29, 2011


______ - The first issue of "El Heraldo  de la Revolucion" (Herald of the Revolution), the official organ of the First Philippine Republic, is issued at Malolos, Bulacan where the Southeast Asia's  Revolutionary Congress was meeting in the task of drafting the country's first constitution; the development comes amidst the framework for imperialist American invasion/occupation already beginning to be laid and more than four more months before the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) is instigated by the Bald Eagle President William McKinley to precipitate a war in the bid to push the American Congress to approve and fund the annexation [read: translation] of the Southeast Asian islands in what will be America's first ever imperialist war, the "First Vietnam"; El Heraldo's name will later be changed to "Heraldo Filipino," "Indice Oficial, and finally, to "Gaceta de Filipinas,"with the last issue of the publication coming out on the first year of the Fil-Am War. 

1898 - The Congress of the First Philippine Republic  under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy ratifies the Independence of the Philippines earlier proclaimed  on June 12 of the same year; also known as the Malolos Congress, the legislative body earlier opened 14 days ago in the task of drafting the first Constitution of the Philippines, effectively the first republican constitution in Asia; the development comes despite the August 1898 Peace  Protocol and Mock Battle of Manila  wherein the treacherous Americans falsely made it appear that their forces were the ones who subdued the  Spaniards and not the Filipino revolutionaries, and amidst the fact that Spanish military officials and soldiers have been surrendering to the natives even in Visayas and Mindanao islands where the Philippine flag also already flies despite their failed attempt to isolate them from Luzon island; in four months time, the bloody and protracted  Filipino-American War (1899-1914) will break out upon the vile instigation of the Bald Eagle nation, with the American regimental commanders in Manila scheming to fire the first shots that will first victimize Filipino soldiers peacefully crossing the San Juan Bridge on February 4, 1899; nearly a year and a half earlier, with the second phase of the Himagsikan intersecting with the Spanish-American War, the Filipino leader agreed to cooperate with Admiral George Dewey in fighting Spain based on the verbal promises of the latter and other American officials in the Manila/Southeast Asia that the U.S. will honor Philippine Independence, with Aguinaldo stupidly allowing the free entry of G.I.s into the archipelago.


1890 - Filipino reformist, patriot, and polymath  Jose Mercado Rizal writes his Austrian friend Ferdinand Blumentritt during the Spanish Colonial rule, saying that because Spaniards are only impressed by valor and might, failing to appreciate the artistic sense of the Tagalogs; Rizal adds that is a good thing because that has left the (hated) friars limited to securing the services merely of intriguers and not genuinely talented Filipinos. 

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Wednesday, September 28, 2011


Balangiga hero, Valeriano Abanador, in old age

1901 - Two years & 7 months into the  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the patriotic townspeople of Balangiga, Samar successfully attack the quarters of enemy Bald Eagle soldiers taking their breakfast at a convent house; Gen. Vicente Lukban will later write about the guerrilla-style offensive wherein the Filipinos, led by local chief of police Valeriano Abanador and two guerrilla officers under Lukban, killed around 70 American  invaders, including a major, a captain and a  lieutenant, with only five badly wounded able to escape in small boats to the adjacent Leyte province of  Leyte, and seized 20,000 rounds of ammunition,  sabres, and, in short, everything in the barracks of  the enemy and in the quarters of the American  Major" [number of casualties and survivors later shown as 48 dead and 26 survivors, mostly badly wounded].

1898 - Anacleto Solano, leader of the interim local revolutionary government in the Philippine province of Albay, signs  the act of adhesion of the local people to President Emilio E. Aguinaldo's government; the adhesion comes 3 1/2 months after Aguinaldo declared the Filipinos' Independence from colonial Spain but but a month after the Peace Protocol and the Mock Battle of Manila wherein the treacherous Americans falsely made it appear that their forces were the ones who subdued the  Spaniards and not the Filipino revolutionaries, and some four months before the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) will be secretly instigated by American regimental commanders upon the vile order of imperialist Bald Eagle President William McKinley in the bid to push the United States Congress to approve the annexation [translation: invasion] of the Philippine archipelago.

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Tuesday, September 27, 2011


Gomez Perez Dasmarina
1593 - Spanish Governor.-General. for the colony  Philippines, Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, writes to the  Cambodian king Prauncar (Phra Uncar) Langara,  expressing his uneasiness about the ongoing  hostility and war between the Cambodian and Siam  (Thai) kingdoms; Cambodia would lose to Siam and  the King Prauncar's royal family would be exiled  although they would later be restored to power; Spain had a few decades earlier begun colonization of islands of the Southeast Asian archipelago populated by an Austronesian race. 

1865 - Miguel Malvar y Carpio, future revolutionary  general and patriot during the Philippine Revolution  and Philippine-American War (1899-1914), is born in Barrio San  Miguel, Santo Tomas, Batangas to Tiburcia Carpio  and Maximo Malvar;  future Gen. Malvar will join the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government the Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), as the Himagsikan breaks out against Spain in 1896; Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro at one point will supply Malvar's forces in Batangas with several thousand guns but in the leadership struggle between the Supremo and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, he will appear to eventually take the side of Aguinaldo; however, during the fight for freedom against the vile invading Bald Eagle forces, Malvar will later echo the ideas of Bonifacio (and future Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini y Maranan) as to how the revolution is also a process of internal cleansing of attitude and duty; Malvar would be known in history as one of the last generals of the First Philippine Republic to surrender to the imperialist American forces, and the de facto successor to President Aguinaldo (who will will be captured and will readily swear allegiance to the imperialist flag), taking charge as Commander-in-Chief of the Filipino army on July 13, 1901; Malvar will carry on the valiant fight for a year following Aguinaldo's fealty oath to the enemy but owing in part to the horrific reconcentration campaign waged by the enemy, will eventually surrender because according to him, his "family and friends who have been accompanying  me are all sick, suffering and hungry."  

1972 - Less than a week after proclaiming Martial  Law, Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos  issues General Order No. 12 defining the  jurisdiction of military tribunals created under  General Order No. 3; in effect General Order No 12  enumerates the cases where military tribunals had  exclusive jurisdiction or exercise jurisdiction  concurrent with civil courts; Marcos had rationalized  his declaration of Martial Law with the supposed  "wanton destruction of lives and property,  widespread lawlessness and anarchy, and chaos and  disorder" fomented by seditious communist  elements.

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Monday, September 26, 2011


1603 - Rumors of an upcoming Chinese Uprising circulate in the Spanish colony, the Philippines, around a week before it is to take place; Spain  had begun colonization of the islands (populated by an Austronesian race when it sent explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to forge the first settlements in the Southeast Asian archipelago some 38  years earlier.

1887 - Filipino patriot, reformist and polymath Jose  Mercado Rizal sends his friend Austrian Ferdinand  Blumentritt a package that includes sulpakan, his  own invention of a lighter operating on the principle of compressed air, and writes about the death of  his sister Olimpia during a difficult childbirth; Rizal adds that Blumentritt's package also includes a gold coin, part of a recently unearthed clay jar of gold coins believed to have used by the ancient Tagalogs.


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy of the fledgling Philippine Republic forms his Malolos cabinet 3 1/2 months  after declaring the Southeast Asian country Independent from colonial Spain, but a month after the Peace Protocol and the  Mock Battle of Manila wherein the emerging imperialist United States falsely made it appear  that their forces were the ones who subdued the  Spaniards and not the Filipino revolutionaries;  Aguinaldo's cabinet, with his government now avoiding the vile invader Americans, is based in Malolos, Bulacan and includes Felipe Buencamino as Secretary of Development;  Gregorio Araneta as Secretary of Justice; Jose E. Basa as justice director of the central government; Baldomero  Aguinaldo, Secretary of War; Antonio Luna,  Director; Artemio Ricarte, Vito Belarmino, Emiliano  Riego de Dios  as Generals of Division; and Tomas  Mascardo, Pantaleon Garcia, Mariano Llanera,  Mariano Noriel, Isidro Torres, Miguel Malvar, and  Paciano Rizal as Brigadier-Generals; in less than five months time, the leader of the  Bald Eagle nation, William McKinley who will subsequently ridiculously claim God instructed him to invade the "whole archipelago or none," will secretly order his regimental military commanders to instigate what will be the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

Sunday, September 25, 2011


Lope K. Santos

1879 - Lope K. Santos, future foremost Filipino Tagalog grammarian, writer, politician, and labor  leader and founder of Kapatirang Alagad ni  Bonifacio, Inc. and Taliba ng Inang Wika, is born  in Pasig, Rizal; Santos, who will help the group of the future President of the defiant Katagalugan Republic, Macario Sakay in organizing the 1901 Nacionalista Party and become a future Senator, will include as his literary  masterpieces  "Banaag at Sikat," an opus tackling  socialism's rise in the Philippines, and the  translation into Tagalog of "Aves de Rapina," the  scathing El Renacimiento editorial attacking the  corruption of the colonial American Interior  Secretary Dean C. Worcester.

1890 - Filipino patriot, reformist, and polymath Jose Mercado Rizal delivers a speech in the Masonic lodge "Solidaridad," No. 53, in Madrid Spain; therein, Rizal dwells on the subject of virtue, which he defines as "the constant performance of duty," explaining the concepts and practices of duties.

1903 - Filipino revolutionist and freedom-fighter Simeon A. Ola surrenders to the enemy Col. Harry H. Bandholtz of the imperialist Bald Eagle nation 4 1/2 years into the protracted Philippine American War (1899-1914); the teniente de cuadrillos of Guinobatan, Albay in Bicol province, Ola fought in the Philippine Revolution against Spain, becoming the Secretary of Finance of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's Revolutionary Government, and then valiantly leading his troops in persistent guerilla attacks; owing to the atrocious reconcentration system utilized by the invader Americans, Ola ultimately decided to surrender to the enemy to spare the civilian natives from the imperialist forces' cruel-level military operations.

1943 - The Philippine National Assembly  during  the Japanese Occupation holds its general session  to elect the President of the Republic and the  legislative body's speaker; Jose P. Laurel is  elected President and Benigno A. Aquino as  Speaker; with the conclusion of World War II and  Japanese surrender following the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the Second Philippine Republic will be dissolved by President Laurel on  August 17, 1945 to return the Philippines to the state of being a colony of the imperialist United  States. 

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Saturday, September 24, 2011


1559 - King Philip II of Spain decides to send one more expedition to the  archipelago they will later name the Philippines, with the  prospect of colonizing the Southeast Asian land, convinced as he was that the islands (populated by an Austronesian race) lie within the Spanish zone marked out by the 1493 demarcation lines of the Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off Africa's western west coast) as decreed by the bull of Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI; in his order, Philip II instructs Luis de Velasco, New Spain's vicerroy and president of the royal Audiencia, not to enter Portugal-owned islands and, instead, "to other nearby islands, such as the Phelipinas and others, which lie outside the above agreement and within our demarcation, and are said likewise to contain spice."

1716- Taal volcano in the Philippines erupts, with  "a great number of detonations" being heard at  around 6 pm during the Spanish colonization of  the Southeast Asian archipelago; according to the  account of Catholic priest Fr. Saderra Maso, the  fury of the volcanic emissions of "great masses of  smoke, water, and ashes [rushing] out of the  lake, high up into the air" was such that a strip of  around 16.7 meters fronting the Taal convent and  other areas of the beach were engulfed by water; one of the Philippine's most active volcanoes comprising the Pacific "ring of fire," the Taal Volcano complex situated between the towns to be later known as Talisay and San Nicolas in Batangas,  is made up of an island in Lake Taal which, in turn, is situated within a caldera formed by an earlier, very powerful eruption.

1972 - The National Historical Institute is (NHI)  created by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos  y Edralin by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1 as a  national agency tasked with promoting the Southeast Asian country's history and cultural  heritage; the creation of the NHI comes following  the abolition of a number of memorial and  commemoration committees, including its  forerunner  Philippine Historical Committee  (which took over the Philippine Historical  Research and Markers Committee) in the effort to  streamline their differing functions.

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Friday, September 23, 2011


Enemy American invaders in Tarlac, late 1899

1899 - President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy of the  Philippine-Republic-on-the-run publishes the  pamphlet "True Narrative of the Philippine  Revolution" in Tarlac  7 1/2 months after the  enemy United States secretly instigated the  Philippine-American War (1899-1914)  and 13  months after the infamous Mock of Battle of  Manila wherein the imperialist Americans falsely  made it appear before the world that it was their  forces and not the revolutionary Filipinos that  subdued the colonial Spaniards in the Southeast  Asian archipelago;  addressed "TO ALL CIVILIZED NATIONS AND ESPECIALLY TO THE GREAT NORTH AMERICAN REPUBLIC" and entitled 'Resena Veridica de la  Revolucion Filipina" in Spanish, the pamphlet tells  a litany of charges against the American invasion, including how the US government  has been manipulating the Filipino leaders into a false hope of independence.

_____ Filipino Gen. P. Garcia reports to Gen. Servillano Aquino y Aguilar about the attack of the freedom  fighters on a train carrying enemy American soldiers more than seven months after the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) began; led  by Commander Juan Balbuena, the hostilities involved  the order on 1st Company Bon. Torres Bugayon to attack the enemy train between Calulut and  Angels, resulting to 12 enemy casualties and  injury to one prisoner and two casualties and two  injuries on the side of the Filipino patriots.

Photo credit: /thewarrages1899.htm

Thursday, September 22, 2011


Filipino fortification during the Revolution against Spain
1898 - The Philippine Army captures Albay province, forcing the colonial Spaniards to flee  as 1,500 patriots from the Tagalog region in Luzon land in Antique, bringing heavy artillery with them;  the developments came three days after the protocol of surrender of Spanish forces in Camarines Sur to the Filipinos and more than three months after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy declared Philippine Independence  from Spain, having captured most of the northern provinces and the whole bay area and won almost every encounter against the Spaniards; the development comes two months after the imperialist  United States, the emerging new colonial enemy of Filipinos,  falsely made it appear to the world that its  forces--instead of the Filipinos--were the ones that subdued the Spaniards in the Philippines during the infamous Mock Battle of Manila and five months before the onset of the bloody and protracted  Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

1972 - A day after the official declaration of Martial  Law, Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos orders all the executive branch's  departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and  instrumentalities ,  "government-owned or controlled corporations, as well  as "all local governments and barrios throughout the land", to continue functioning under their present officers and employees in accordance with existing laws; exception to the order tied in with Proclamation  1081 (Martial Law) is the judiciary, with Marcos ordering that certain criminal cases not be heard and decided by civil courts but, instead, as later defined  by the President's succeeding orders, by special military tribunals.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011


American Atrocity Cartoon
1900 - Filipino freedom-fighter Faustin Pantua writes about imperialist American brutality resulting from  the enemy's defeat at the Battle of Mabitac four days earlier when 180 of their soldiers either died or were  wounded compared to  only five on the side of the  Philippine army, one year and seven months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); Pantua narrates how the Bald Eagle  soldiers, learning of the death of Lt. Col. Fidel S.  Angeles in the Mabitac battle, clothed a person they  have held captive for years to make him look like the Filipino colonel,  and then killed him in the  town of Baybay to apparently make it appear that the  Mabitac defenders fell into their hands; shocked by the imperialist enemy's gross atrocities, Pantua  writes:
What brutality! What infamy for a nation that prides  itself on being civilized and humane! Enough of  amercanism! Then long live the the Filipino Republic!

1891 - The colonial pacification of Buloung, Cotabato  is completed when the district's Sultan and Datus  inform the Spanish of their willingness to  acknowledge Spanish rule; coming some five years  before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution and  two years before future anti-colonial hero Andres Bonifacio y de Castro co-found the secret society aiming for the complete liberation of the the Southeast Asian nation from the yoke of colonial stranglehold, the Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), the offer is  accepted by the Parang garrison's colonial Military Commander.

1972 - The entire Philippines is placed under Martial Law by President Ferdinand E. Marcos with the issuance of Proclamation No. 1081 on the strength of the 1935 Constitution's Article VII, Section 10, Paragraph 2, making Marcos the most powerful person in the Southeast Asian archipelago as he now  exercises commander-in-chief powers in relation to martial law; Marcos rationalizes the proclamation with the existence of lawless elements in the insurrectionist force dubbed the New People's Army,  supposedly intending to overthrow the government and supplant it with one adhering to Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology.

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Tuesday, September 20, 2011


Gabriela Silang
1763 - Gabriela Silang, the first known Filipino woman to lead an uprising against a foreign power, is executed by hanging by Spanish colonial authorities along with 80 of her followers; Gabriela Silang has continued the fight for freedom left by her husband, Diego Silang, who proclaimed the independence of Ilokanos from Spanish colonial rule and declared Vigas as capital in 1762 but was treacherously killed by a hired mestizo assassin four months earlier.

1899 - Seven months into the protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Gen. Emilio  Aguinaldo y Famy of the fledgling Philippine Republic issues a  decree regarding secondary public education,  instructing competent teachers and principals to teach subjects to students of secondary schools; the  decree is issued from Tarlac where the  government-on-the-run is currently based, having  earlier moved northward from Cavite to Malolos while  avoIding the enemy forces of the imperialist American  invaders.

1934 - The election of Filipino delegates to the National Assembly takes place during the Japanese  Occupation of the Philippines during World War II;  half of the delegates are elected by provincial and  municipal officials from the list provided by the  political party KALIBAPI (Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa  Bagong Pilipinas), with the other half being composed  of provincials and city mayors deemed by the  Constitution of the Second Philippine Republic as the  assembly's ex-oficio members.

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Monday, September 19, 2011


1896 - Antonio San Agustin Salazar, Filipino mason  and revolutionary and one of the Bagumbayan Martyrs  during the Spanish colonial rule, confesses that he  knows Andres Bonifacio, the founder and leader of  the revolutionary  society-turned-rebel-government   Kataastaasan, .Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), because  he was supposedly present  during Bonifacio's initiation into the Masonic lodge "Taliba"; Salazar would be one of the 13 so-called  Bagumbayan martyrs to be shot on January 11, 1897  during a period later described by historians as  "period of terror" when the Spanish colonial  authorities resorted to terrifying acts in the bid to  quell the Philippine Revolution that began in August  1896. 

All-American, the imperialist body Philippine Commission

1900 - One year and seven months into the bloody  and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the imperialist body Philippine Commission [translation: United States colonial commission to help colonize the Philippines] adopts a  system of civil service wherein government service  appointments are based on competitive test results.

1862 - The Spanish colonial Royal Commissary is created in the bid to conduct extensive survey of  conditions in the colony, the Philippine Islands,  particularly with regards problems concerning local  civil administration.

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Sunday, September 18, 2011


1891 - Jose Mercado Rizal, Filipino propagandist, patriot and  polymath, publishes in Ghent, Belgium "El  Filibusterismo" (The Subversive or Reign of Greed),  his second novel serving as a political treatise that  exposes the evils of the Spanish colonial government  and church authorities; along with the earlier novel  "Noli Me Tangere" (Touch Me Not), El Filibusterismo will anger the Spanish colonial elites and some of the  hispanized Filipinos due to their insulting symbolism,  leading to his prosecution as supposed inciter of the Philippine Revolution (to be led by an admiring revolutionary, Andres Bonifacio y de Castro  who will power the secret society that will turn into a revolutionary government, the Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan) that will break out in August 1896 and, eventually,  Rizal's military trial and execution in  December 1896.

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Saturday, September 17, 2011


1900 - The Battle of Mabitac that spelled victory for  the Filipino freedom fighters against the imperialist  American invaders takes place in Laguna one and  one-half years into the protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914);  Cailles, acting operations  chief in the first zone of Manila, had earlier defiantly raised the Filipino flag in the headquarters he  established at Santa Cruz, Laguna from where he  directed operations against the enemy under Gen.  Henry Lawton; using guerrilla tactics and mastery of  the terrain, Filipino Gen. Juan Cailles leads the  native soldiers in routing the militarily superior  American forces commanded by Col. Benjamin F.  Cheatahm, Jr.

1871 - Filipino revolutionary Gen. Francisco  Macabulos, future liberator of Tarlac province during  the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is born in La  Paz, Tarlac; Macabulos will  not go to Hong Kong to  take part in the Biak-na-Bato Peace Pact momentarily  forged by Hen. Emilio Aguinaldo  with the Spanish  colonial authorities and, instead, will form the  Provisional Revolutionary Government of Central  Luzon covering Nueva Ecija, Zambales, La Union,  Pangasinan, and the Ilocos Region, with its own  Constitution; unfortunately, Makabulos will not deem  it worthy to fight the new colonizers, the imperialist  United States and, thus, will early on capitulate to the enemy Gen. Douglas McArthur in June 1900, one year and four  months into the  protracted Philippine-American War  (1899-1914).

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Friday, September 16, 2011


Spaniards will hire an artist to depict the defeat of the Piddig Ilokanos

1807 -  The Basi Revolt of Piddig residents in Ilocos Norte  takes place in the Spanish colony, the Philippine  Islands, in protest over the wine monopoly and  colonial authorities' prohibition of the manufacture of  the native cane wine called basi; also known as the Alzamiento de Ambaristo or Ambaristo Revolt, the uprising led by Pedro Mateo involved the use of crude bows, bamboo spears, arrows, and even kitchen knives by the natives who were driven by their seething feeling of having been deprived and oppressed for a long time and, not unexpectedly, was short-lived, with the Spanish colonizers using regular military and guardia civil soldiers to fire cannons and rifles at Badoc, near the rebel base.

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Thursday, September 15, 2011


Opening of the Malolos Congress

1898 - The Malolos Congress, the legislative body of the fledgling Philippine government is opened in  Bulacan province three months after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy proclaimed Independence from colonial Spain but a month after Peace Protocol and  Mock Battle of Manila between the troops of Spain the emerging imperialist power, the imperialistic United States that aimed to show that the Spaniards in the Southeast Asian archipelago succumbed to the American forces and not the Filipino revolutionaries; Aguinaldo had earlier been verbally conned into cooperating in the war against Spain by various US officials in the region, making him allow the free entry of the American soldiers and holding the attack on the seat of Spanish colonial power, thereby allowing the imperialist G.I.'s to position themselves for the Mock Battle and eventual invasion, with initial hostilities during the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) to be secretly instigated by the Bald Eagle forces on orders of their President, William McKinley, in the bid to push the US Congress into ratifying the de facto baseless Treaty of Paris where Spain supposedly 'cedes' its former colony and, thus, funding and approving the "annexation" [read: invasion] of the fledgling Philippine Republic.

--- On the same day appointed provincial representatives are convening to draft the Constitution of the First Philippine Republic, the Filipino forces accede to imperialist American General Otis, withdrawing from the limits of the city of Manila with the exception of the districts of Paco and Pandacan, south of the Pasig river, in the bid to prevent the break out of hostilities as the United States military continue their month-long efforts at laying the civilian framework for the invasion of the Southeast Asian country.

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Wednesday, September 14, 2011


1813 - The Spanish colonial edict abolishing the Galleon Trade in the Philippines is passed, seven  months after the proposal was submitted, as part of  the provision (equality clause) of the Cadiz  Constitution of 1812 which exempts colonized natives, including those from the Southeast Asian archipelago, from paying tributes and rendering public service; the Galleon Trade, wherein Manila was administered through Mexico and served as  transshipment port for China-Mexico product exchange, was the chief economic activity the Spanish colonizers engaged in for over 200 years; owing in part to how Philippine exports were not part of the Acapulco galleon trade, it did not benefit the Filipinos and, instead, caused undue miseries to the  natives by way of abuses arising from the resulting labor demand for shipbuilders, woodcutters, and crewmen. 

1914 - Nicolas V. Zamora, the first Filipino Protestant pastor and founder of Iglesia Evangelica Metodista,  the first Philippine (Protestant) independent church, dies at the young age of 39;  Zamora readily took to the American Protestant missionaries and converted to Protestantism owing to the bitter history his family had with the Spanish friars, including the execution of their relative, Fr. Jacinto Zamora in 1872, and the exile of his father to the Mediterranean island of Cheferino for possession of a copy of the bible, an act then disallowed by the Catholic Church.

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Tuesday, September 13, 2011


Photo Art: JB

1907 - Gen. Macario Sakay y de Leon, one of the Filipino military leaders who continued fighting the imperialist United States following the spurious 1902 declaration of the supposed end of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), is hanged along with Col. Lucia de Vega by the colonial authorities under the Bald Eagle's repressive and name-calling Bandolerism Act charging all Filipino freedom-fighters as bandits, robbers, and ladrones; Sakay, who revived the anti-Spanish revolutionary movement Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), operated in Luzon and established the Republika ng Katagalugan, had been deceived by the American Governor-General Henry Ide  into surrendering on promises of amnesty and the need to establish peace as prerequisite for eventual independence by way of a congress of elected Filipino representatives; earlier, the nefarious Americans murdered en masse 400 of followers of Gen. Sakay hanging and by lethal serum while in prison;  Sakay established and became President, with Francisco Carreon as Vice president, of the freedom-fighting or defiant "Republika ng Katagalugan" covering the whole of the Philippine archipelago in the declaration and which had its Katipunan-based flag, constitution and seal and which upheld the KKK character of the equality of every person regardless of race, skin color, wealth, intelligence and appearance as it exalts every individual's 'essential nature' (loob) instead; Sakay proved to be the last and apparently the greatest Filipino general that took on the  imperialist Bald Eagle that for a time could only vilify the sagacious and determined freedom fighting leader of the Katagalugan Republic who managed to expansively operate in the Southern Luzon areas despite the establishment of the terroristic concentration camps by the Americans through the colonial Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Scouts.

Monday, September 12, 2011


1896 - The "Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite," Filipino members  of the secret society-turned-revolutionary government and army Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), are executed by Spanish colonial authorities at Plaza de Armas, near Fort San Felipe, Cavite City, 12:45 noontime; the 13 Katipuneros: Maximo Inocencio, Luis Aguado, Victoriano Luciano, Hugo Perez, Jose Lallana, Antonio San Agustin, Agapito Conchu, Feliciano Cabuco, Maximo Gregorio, Eugenio Cabezas, Severino Lapidario, Alfonso de Ocampo, and Francisco Osorio,  planned to launch a concerted uprising in Cavite province on September 1 (later moved to September 3-4) in the house of Gregorio but were arrested when their plan was discovered through a dressmaker named Victoriana Sayat and the resulting forced confessions from the initial arrests of Ocampo and Lapidario; after execution, the lifeless bodies of the patriots would be carried into a garbage cart, guarded by six rifle-and-bayonet-armed Spanish soldiers, and brought to the Convent cemetery at Caridad, with Gregorio, Cabuco, San Agustin, Conchu, Cabezas, Lallana, Lapidario, and de Ocampo to be dumped in one hole while the those of Inocencio, Osorio, Aguado, Perez and Luciano to be taken by their affluent families and be buried in separate coffins.

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Sunday, September 11, 2011


1917 - Ferdinand E. Marcos, sixth officially recognized President of the Philippine Republic, is born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin; Marcos, who will be a Death March soldier survivor during World War II, will use his claims of being an important Filipino guerrilla resistance movement leader to help propel his political plans, eventually rising to become a congressman, senator, and Senate President before winning the presidential elections of 1965; he will become a controversial leader, imposing Martial Law rule in September 1972 and ruling the Southeast Asian nation as a dictator, but implementing a policy of nationalization and unprecedented infrastructure development.

1946 - Benigno Q. Aquino, former Tarlac representative, senator, and assemblyman, and father of future anti-Marcos opposition icon Benigno S. "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., is provisionally released from prison following charges by colonial American authorities that he and President Jose P. Laurel and the rest of the latter's cabinet committed treason when they served as officials of the Second Philippine Republic during the Japanese Occupation in World War II.

Saturday, September 10, 2011


Malolos Republic
1898 -The capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic moves from Bacoor, Cavite to Malolos, Bulacan five  months before the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and a month after the  infamous Mock Battle of Manila  made it crystal clear to President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy that his American "allies" had intended to steal and not honor Philippine Independence; that same day,  Gen. Pantaleon Garcia is provoked by American  forces reconnoitering the vicinity of Sampalok, as Aguinaldo receives a letter from Howard Bray informing him that that Gen. Merritt of the (emerging) imperialist Bald Eagle nation has supposedly intimated to him that the Filipino Revolutionary Government should occupy Visayas and Mindanao.

____ - Spanish troops under 2nd Lt. Antonio Carpio in  Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya surrender to the Filipino forces under Major Delfin Esquibel despite the Peace Protocol and the infamous Mock Battle of Manila  concluded nearly a month earlier when the Americans falsely made it appear that they were the ones that overcame--instead of the Filipino revolutionaries--the defenders of the Spanish seat of colonial power in the Philippines; the development came even as the imperialist Americans continue to move towards the occupation of the Philippines after conning Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy into militarily cooperating to fight colonial Spain, with several Bald Eagle diplomats and military officers making verbal promises of honoring Philippine Independence.

1861 - Colonial Spain issues a Royal Decree ordering  Filipino priests to relinquish their parishes to the  Recollect friars; the decree will lead to Filipinos'  discontent over racial discrimination in the clergy,  eventually resulting to the secularization movement  initially began by Spanish-Filipino Fr. Pedro S. Pelaez
(1812-1863), which was thereafter met by oppressive crackdowns by  the Spanish friars/authorities.

1967 - Fidel A. Reyes, Filipino journalist who authored the scathing El Renacimiento editorial  "Aves de Rapina" attacking the colonial American Interior Secretary, dies at the old age of 89;  appearing in the October 30, 1908 editorial of the anti-American daily, El Renacimiento, "Aves de  Rapina" criticized Dean C. Worcester for having "the characteristics of the vulture, the owl, and the vampire," referring to his alleged use of public money to finance his prospecting of gold in the Benguet  mountains for personal profit.

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Friday, September 9, 2011


1900 - One and one-half years into the  Filipino-American War (1899-1914), Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy of the  fledgling Philippine Republic gathers the Palanan folks to a luncheon meeting at the town convent, reminding them of their patriotic duties in  fighting the enemy imperialist United States forces;  the first shots of the protracted bloody and protracted Philippine-American War were fired by an American soldier as part of a prearranged plan by the US military under President William McKinley's scheme to precipitate war and  to influence  the American Senate into approving the annexation [translation: invasion] of the  Southeast Asian country; back in the summer of 1897, with the second phase of the Himagsikan intersecting with the Spanish-American War, Aguinaldo stupidly agreed to an alliance with the Bald Eagle forces in fighting Spain amidst the verbal assurances of a number of American military and diplomatic officials that the U.S. was an ally and would honor Philippine Independence; with Aguinaldo allowing the free entry of the future enemy American soldiers, the U.S. managed to position themselves for the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely made it look like that the Americans--instead of the Filipino revolutionaries--defeated the Spaniards in the archipelago and eventually for the invasion of the Philippines that led to the Fil-Am War, America's first war of colonial expansion.

1878 - Sergio Osmena y Suico (Sr.), the future second  Philippine President of the colonial Commonwealth government during the American Occupation, is born in Cebu; Osmena, who will briefly serve in the Philippine Revolution against Spain under Gen. Juan Climaco, and later publish the periodical "El Nuevo Dia" for which he faced  threats from the colonial authorities for its occasional criticism of American military campaigns in the Southeast Asian country, will serve the American colonial government in various capacities, being elected Speaker of the Philippine Assembly, and Senator, and Vice-President  of the  Commonwealth before succeeding President Manuel L. Quezon in exile during World War II.

Thursday, September 8, 2011


American GIs pose before bodies of dead Filipino Muslims
1902 - With the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) well raging on, the fraudulent certification that peace  exists in the Philippine islands is made before the imperialist United States President by the  "Philippine Commission" [translation: US colonial commission to help colonize the Philippines]; the false certification, proved by how the law against treason and sedition is not repealed, is supposed to be the basis of  Bald Eagle President Theodore Roosevelt's official declaration  of the cessation of the Filipino "insurgent"  war but, in reality, guerrilla warfare by Filipino patriots in the non-Muslim areas will continue until about a decade and in the Southern provinces, until about 1914.

1898 - Spain decides to imprison Filipino propagandist and patriot Jose Rizal  after learning of  his supposed history as a radical as soon as he arrives in Barcelona; Rizal will be sent back to Manila where he  will stand trial after being implicated in the Philippine Revolution on grounds of his association with members of the revolutionary Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) movement; within four months, he will be found guilty despite issuing a manifesto disavowing the revolution and will be executed by firing squad.

Wednesday, September 7, 2011


Cecilio R. Apostol
1938 - Cecilio Apostol y de los Reyes, Filipino revolutionary poet  and patriot who helped edit the official organ of the  First Philippine Republic, La Independencia, dies of  cerebral hemorrhage in his home in Caloocan; a law  student when the Philippine Revolution against Spain  broke out, he used his pen to articulate his patriotic sentiments against both colonial Spain and the new colonial enemy, the imperialist United States, writing  in various newspapers like La Fraternidad, La  Democracia, La Patria, and the anti-American daily,  El Renacimiento as the protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) raged on; Apostol is noted for translating into French the "Decalogue" of Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, the Father of the Philippine Revolution, and the Ilocano epic "Lam-ang" into Spanish, and for his poetical masterpiece "To Rizal."

1922  -  Valeriano P. Hernandez y Pena, the "Father of Tagalog Novel" acclaimed for "Nena at Neneng," the first ever novel in the vernacular published in 1905, dies with his faithful wife and his sister at his side; while he did not directly join the Philippine Revolution, "Mang Anong" channeled his literary obsession into pointing out the problems plaguing the country, assisting the anti-friar propaganda work of patriot and fellow Bulakeno Marcelo H. del Pilar through the novels "Pagluha ng Matuwid" and "Bunga ng Maling Pag-iimbot" and, later, writing "Mag Inang Mahirap," "Mga Tinik ng Bulaklak," "Dangal ng Magulang" and "Hatol ng Panahon" during the American colonial period.

Tuesday, September 6, 2011


1897 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo makes a proclamation stating that the Filipino revolutionary movement must adopt guerrilla  warfare--using ambuscades and offensive military operations--in order to defeat the enemy Spanish  colonial forces; the proclamation comes some four months after Aguinaldo seized the leadership  of the Philippine revolutionaries from  Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro whom he had executed on May 10 of the same year a few weeks following the anomalous elections of the Tejeros Convention and a kangaroo court martial, in what his Prime Minister, Apolinario Mabini y Maranan would later dub as "crime" and an "assassination";  in three months, Aguinaldo will forge the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, a truce (temporarily) ending the Philippine Revolution, giving amnesty to the revolutionaries, and providing monetary indemnity to Aguinaldo and his key men who will go on voluntary exile.

Enemy American invaders fire on the Filipino soldiers/freedom fighters

1900 - President Emilio Aguinaldo Y Famy of the Philippine-Republic-on-the-run arrives at Palanan, Isabela where he is enthusiastically welcomed by a large crowd and brass band, ten days after fleeing from Tierra Virgen in the bid to escape capture from the enemy invading American forces that earlier landed at Aparri, Cagayan; Aguinaldo's government had been moving northwards after the imperialist Americans had conned him into thinking the Bald Eagle nation was a revolutionary ally, and into cooperating in battling Spain and allowing US forces to freely enter the Southeast Asian archipelago; the North Americans will prove to be traitorous "allies" that would soon virtually steal the country's Independence by staging the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed the world that it is they, instead of the Filipinos, that defeated the Spaniards in the Philippines, subsequently forging the Treaty of Paris that supposedly 'cedes' the Philippines into US hands for $20 million dollars, and eventually leading to the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) beginning February 4, 1899.

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Monday, September 5, 2011


1972 - A bomb explodes at Joe's Department  Store in Carriedo St., Quiapo, Manila, Philippines as part of a series of bombings prior to the declaration of Martial Law by President Ferdinand  Marcos y Edralin, killing a woman and injuring 38 others;  the series of bombings starting March of the year that will damage several  government and private structures and other  properties and which will be tagged as part of the Communist Party of the Philippines' "Regional  Program of Action 1972" will be used by Marcos  to rationalize Martial Law, declaring it on September 21 of that year under Proclamation 1081.

Young Lorenza M. Agoncillo (center, seated) & family

1890 - Lorenza M. Agoncillo, one of the three Filipinas who will weave the flag of the First Philippine Republic, is born in Taal, Batangas; along with the niece of Jose Rizal, Lorenza who will by then be only seven years old, shall assist her mother, Marcella Agoncillo, in making the flag first that would later be waved from the window of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo's house in Kawit, Cavite as Philippine Independence is declared on June 12, 1898 following Filipino victories enabling their near complete control of the Southeast Asian archipelago against colonial Spanish soldiers during the Himagsikan (Philippine Revolution).

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Sunday, September 4, 2011


1943 - In the thick of World War II, the Philippine Constitution under Japanese Occupation is adopted by the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence lad by President Jose P. Laurel; the 1943 Constitution of the Second Philippine Republic creating a Republican state with a a powerful executive branch, with the President to be elected from among members of the unicameral National assembly and with subordinate legislative and judicial branches, was drafted, approved and submitted for ratification during the Kalibapi [Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas] convention in Manila.

Barasoain Church, circa 1898
1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy issues an executive proclamation summoning the Filipinos to send delagates to what will be the First Philippine Congress to be assembled in Malolos, Bulakan on September 15; the proclamation--made more than three months following the Declaration of Philippine Independence against Spain--comes amidst the realization of the officers and soldiers of the fledgling Philippine Republic that the Americans whom Aguinaldo stupidly trusted and cooperated with in battling colonial Spain have stolen the country's independence and have begun imperialist efforts at occupying the islands; some three weeks earlier, the emerging imperialist Bald Eagle nation and the dying colonial power that was Spain waged the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely made it appear that the Americans--instead of the Filipinos--defeated the Spaniards in Manila, and come February of the following year, the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) will break out upon deliberate, secret instigation ordered by the imperialist President William McKinley.

Saturday, September 3, 2011


1899 - The Spanish version of the Philippine National Anthem is published for the first time in the La Independencia, the periodical and official organ of the First Philippine Republic founded by Gen. Antonio Luna, and with staff members that include Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Cecilio Apostol, Epifanio de los Santos, Rafael Palma, and Rosa Sevilla; the publication comes some eight months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) deliberately and secretly instigated on orders of vile imperialist Bald Eagle President William McKinley in his bid to make the United States Congress approve and, thereby, provide congressional funding for,  the annexation [READ: invasion] of the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic.

Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita

-- One year and seven months into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the new colonial police force established  by the American invaders which includes some Filipino revolutionaries who have elected to abandon the patriotic fight for the independence of their motherland start patrolling the city of Manila in cooperation with the provost guard.

1945 - Some two weeks after the United States dropped  atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the  commander of the Imperial Japanese Army forces in the Philippines,  Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, also dubbed as "Tiger of  Malaya," makes his formal surrender to the American forces in Baguio, northern Philippines; within five months, Yamashita will be hanged at Los Banos, Laguna following an American military tribunal's findings that he has committed war crimes during World War II under the principle of command responsibility.