Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Illustration of Bloodied 1897 KKK Flag
1897 - More than one and a half months after bloodily sealing sealed his usurpation of revolutionary leadership from Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy has the nerve to call on everyone who possesses honor and the sense of personal dignity; the Filipino, the Asiatic, the American and the European all alike suffer; to join the Philippine national revolution against Spanish colonial rule; Aguinaldo had earlier dislodged Bonifacio from the helm of Katipunan (KKK) revolutionary power during the rushed and anomalously conducted Tejeros Convention and subsequently ordered Bonifacio's murder-by-execution on May 10, 1897 sometime after the latter had declared the election illegal with the Acta de Tejeros.

Tuesday, June 29, 2010


1944 - Imperialist United States approves its right to retain military, naval, and air bases in  its colony, the Philippines, via Joint Resolution No. 83, approved by the ; US Congress, supposedly intended for the "mutual "protection of the colony and itself and or the  maintenance of peace in the Pacific;  the resolution, which was passed during World War II  while the Southeast Asian colony was still under the hands of Japan, was originally but  minimally enshrined in the Tydings-McDuffie Law that empowered the Bald Eagle nation to retain only naval bases; the North American nation will "grant" pathetic Philippines its independence  in 1946 but not before establishing  several colonizing mechanisms through agreements,  treaties aimed at manipulating and controlling Filipinos' political and economic lives.

Monday, June 28, 2010


1571 - The first session of the Ayuntamiento is first held in Manila, Philippine islands, during  the early decades of Spanish colonial rule in the Southeast Asian archipelago; also known as cabildo, the ayuntamiento was a colonial administrative council governing a municipality, with every Spanish colonial municipality in the Philippines (and the Southern Americas)  theoretically each having an ayuntamiento; ayuntamiento edifices were often excellent in  style, as seen in the Manila Ayuntamiento, which  would be the site where imperialist  representatives Spanish Governor General  Jaudenes and American General Wesley Merrit will  sign the official change of colonial power over pathetic colony, the Philippines, some three hundred years later.

Photo: Manila Ayuntamiento

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Friday, June 25, 2010


Rounsevelle Wildman, U. S. Consul-General at Hong Kong.
Rounsevelle Wildman
 U. S. Consul-General at Hong Kong
 1898 - American Consul General at Hong Kong Rounseville Wildman foxily writes Philippine President Emilio  Aguinaldo convincing him to stand shoulder to shoulder with what will be the future invading American forces, saying that he has supposedly "vouched for [Aguinaldo's] honesty and  earnestness of purpose to the President of the United States and to [the American] people,"  during the Revolution after the Filipinos have declared Independence following their liberation of majority of the archipelago from the hands of Spanish colonizers; the communications of  Wildman, who will later rip off Aguinaldo of P67,000 intended for a  second shipment of arms and ammunition, will be instrumental in making Aguinaldo stupidly trust Commodore George Dewey and allow the American forces to freely enter Philippine territory  and position themselves for their sinister scheme of invading the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic come February 1899.

Thursday, June 24, 2010


1898 - Gregorio del Pilar liberates the town of Bulacan from  the Spanish forces during the second phase of the Philippine  Revolution against Spain; one of the youngest generals of the  Filipino forces, Gregorio del Pilar will soon be promoted  brigadier-general and will also be responsible for the  successful repulsion of the imperialist American invaders in  the Battle of Quingua (Plaridel) where American Col. John M.  Stotsenberg will die in April 1899 during the early fighting of the Philippine-American War.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo changes the form of  government from  Dictatorial to Revolutionary following the  recent Declaration of Philippine Independence when most but  not yet all of the provinces and cities have been liberated by  the Filipino patriots during the second phase of the Revolution against Spain; President Aguinaldo, who has acted upon the  advice of Apolinario Mabini, his chief adviser, also issues a  decree establishing a Revolutionary Committee abroad--all  these as unknown to Aguinaldo who had been duped into  thinking that America is an ally, with Spain and the rising  imperialist nation, the United States, to later sign a peace protocol to halt Spanish-American War hostilities, which will 'authorize' the Bald Eagle to occupy and hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty set to  define the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines.

Tuesday, June 22, 2010


1900 - Sixteen months into the Filipino-American War but after  the imperialist invading United States forces have arrested  some key people of the Philippine Republic, Gen. Arthur McArthur, the assigned American 'military ruler,' offers former Philippine Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini, amnesty  in exchange for swearing fealty to the Bald Eagle flag;  Mabini, considered as the "Brains of the [second phase of]  the Revolution," was jailed for being "a most active agitator"  [translation: patriot] and persistently and defiantly refusing  amnesty, and maintaining correspondence with insurgents  [translation: defenders of the Philippine Republic]; even  when Mabini will finally take his oath of allegiance to the US in 1903 after  years of exile, he will resume his patriotic work of agitating for independence for the Philippines.

Monday, June 21, 2010


Pedro Paterno - autonomist/traitor

1899 - During the Filipino-American War, Pedro Paterno and Felipe Buencamino, "autonomists" dubbed by Gen. Antonio Luna as traitors  to Philippine independence,  present to the invader North Americans their  "peace" proposals; on the same day, more than a year after the  imperialist United States invaded the fledgling Philippine  Republic, Gen. Arthur MacArthur, assigned to be the military 'ruler' of the Philippine Islands by the imperialist Uncle Sam, plays the propaganda game  by issuing an 'amnesty' decree to the native defenders  and calling  the rightful war staged by Filipinos as 'insurrection' against  the US.

Sunday, June 20, 2010


1899 - Four months into the Filipino-American War, 10,000  Murata rifles, 6,000,000 rounds of ammunition, and other war supplies purchased by Mariano Ponce from the Japanese start sailing aboard the Nonubiki Maru from Nagasaki to the Philippines; earlier in  September 1898, Ponce and F. Lichaucho had sought approval  for arms purchase in a letter to Apolinario Mabini, President  Emilio Aguinaldo's chief adviser, stating that Japanese  officials are inclined to favor the Philippine cause against the North American imperialist aggression although  they only wish to avoid "the possibility of a conflict with...  the Yankee one."

Photo credit:

Saturday, June 19, 2010


1861 - Jose Rizal (José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda), one of the two future implied  national heroes of the Philippine Republic, is born as the  seventh child of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo in  Calamba in Laguna province  during the Spanish colonial rule  in the Southeast Asian archipelago; Rizal's patriotic writings  significantly inspired the other national hero, Andres Bonifacio y de  Castro, into launching the nationalistic revolutionary movement Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK)  in 1896.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010


1898 - During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, American Consul Oscar F. William sends a dispatch to Secretary Wm. R. Day reporting that the Filipino Revolutionists have defeated the colonial forces at practically all encounters and have taken control of the northern provinces and the entire bay coast, save for the city of Manila; the success of the Filipinos, however, will later be stolen by the Americans who will stage the mock Battle of Manila to make it appear that it is they who defeated the Spaniards after duping Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo into allowing the forces of the emerging imperialist United States to enter the Philippine archipelago supposedly as friendly troops.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010


1857 - Vito L. Belarmino, one of the most brilliant Filipino military leaders during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Filipino-American War, is born in Silang, Cavite; Belarmino would join the Katipunan and engage the Spaniards in various skirmishes and,  later as a general, would be given command of Albay province to establish a [local[ republican government; and after Tabaco and Naga tragically fell in February 1900 to the invading imperialist United States forces, he will refuse to surrender and will defiantly organize a guerrilla outfit [to] repeatedly [harass] American installations in the Bicol region.

Monday, June 14, 2010


1941 - President Manuel L. Quezon  signs the maternity-leave bill granting women in government service 60 days maternity leave with full pay in addition to the usual sick and vacation leaves during the period of imperialist American Occupation and several months before the Japanese occupies the Philippines; Quezon's advisers had recommended against the bill on economic grounds but the President, perceived champion of the underdog,  remarked "I’ll sign that bill if it bankrupts the treasury,” before promptly reaching for a pen.


Photo credit:

Sunday, June 13, 2010


1899 - The (second)  Battle of Zapote Bridge, one of the bloodiest battles and actually the largest single battle in the Philippine-American War involving 5,000 Filipinos and 3,000 imperialist enemy forces, is won by Gen. Henry Ware Lawton of the invading United States;  Lawton, who would later be killed by the men of Gen. Licerio Geronimo later that year, remarked on the uncanny bravery of the Filipinos who valiantly fought with much less inferior firepower; the battle would help make President Emilio F. Aguinaldo decide into reforming the regular Philippine Army into guerrilla style units to better engage the enemy Americans and capitalize on the Filipinos' endemic knowledge of the landscape.


Photo credit:

U.S. Library of Congress
(through Tucker, Spencer
The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history, Volume 1)

Saturday, June 12, 2010


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, leader of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, proclaims the Independence of the Philippines "under the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," that is the United States of America and thereby ceasing "to have any allegiance to the Crown of Spain" and unfurling a blue, red and yellow flag partly inspired by the Stars-and Stripes banner of the US; ironically, within eight months, America will show the pathetically deceived Aguinaldo its true color as it invades the fledgling Southeast Asian republic beginning February 4, 1899, of which the resulting savage Filipino-American War will last for a bloody ten years or so.

Friday, June 11, 2010


1971 - Former President Carlos P. Garcia is elected president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention drafted to revise the 1935 Philippine Charter, with ex-President Diosdado P. Macapagal being elected vice-President; in three days, Garcia will die from heart attack and will be remembered for his administration's near iconic legacy  of "Filipino First" policy which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.

Thursday, June 10, 2010


1898 - During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, United States Consul-General E. Spencer Pratt, congratulates Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo for his "recent military achievements" and claims that his arrangement for the latter's meeting with US Admiral Spencer Dewey is right; Dewey and the American government has actually conned Aguinaldo into stupidly believing that America is an ally, as will later be shown in the Mock Battle of Manila and most clearly, in the eruption of the Filipino-American War.

Wednesday, June 9, 2010


1945 - Manuel A. Roxas is elected elected President of the Senate during a special session of Congress called by President Sergio Osmena following the end of World War II but with the Philippines still a colony of the United States; this early, Roxas already has set his on the sights on the presidency, with American Gen. Douglas MacArthur and High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt supporting him, and in the elections of 1946, he will win amidst Osmena's refusal to campaign.

Tuesday, June 8, 2010


1900 - Gen. Pio del Pilar, a controversial officer of the First Philippine Republic, is taken prisoner  at Guadalupe, Rizal by imperialist United States forces during the Philippine-American War; Gen. Pio del Pilar, who earlier fatally betrayed Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio and  switched to the side of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo who had grabbed the leadership of the Revolution against Spain, will later also betray Gen. Artemio Ricarte's attempt to reunite Filipino military generals and rekindle the fire of the Philippine Revolution, this time against the Bald Eagle invaders. 

Photo credit:

Monday, June 7, 2010

7 June

1904 - Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia, the Filipino military official of Emilio Aguinaldo's Philippine Republic who never swore allegiance to the imperialist United States of America, is confined at Bilibid Prison in Manila following his treacherous arrest while trying to drum up renewed support against the American invaders during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Ricarte was earlier exiled to Guam (and then Hong Kong), along with other Filipino leaders, but secretly returned to the the country to reunite with former members of the Philippine Army and rekindle the Philippine Revolution.

Raw photo credit:

Sunday, June 6, 2010


1898 - One day after his bodyguards murdered Gen. Antonio Luna, the perceived threat to his position as revolutionary leader, Dictator President Emilio Aguinaldo wires all the military chiefs in five northern provinces  to the effect that he is taking active direction of the military operations and that he is establishing his temporary headquarters at Bamban, Tarlak; Aguinaldo, widely blamed for setting a trap  for the assassination because he did not meet Luna despite his signed telegram calling the former to a conference, also issues a decree delineating the geographic and political divisions of provinces and appointing a military chief for each zone during the Philippine Revolution against Spain.

Saturday, June 5, 2010


1898 - Gen. Antonio Luna, an effective leader of the Philippine forces against the invading imperialist Bald Eagle forces during the Filipino-American War (1899-1914),, is assassinated by bodyguards of President Emilio Aguinaldo at the stairs of the convent of Cabanatuan in the province of Nueva Ecija; the guilt for the murders (Luna's aide-de-camp was also killed) is widely ascribed to Aguinaldo because he summoned Luna to Cabanatuan with a signed telegram calling him to a conference and because during the murder, Aguinaldo's mother looked out the window and asked: Is he still breathing?"

 Photo credit: U.S. Library of Congress via

Friday, June 4, 2010


1898 - Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar reports to Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo about the military operations undertaken primarily in Bulacan province during the Revolution against Spain: their success at capturing and taking the station in Bigaa, Bulacan, which was garrisoned by 24 men of the Spanish Infantry and Rural Guards; control of 9 Bulacan towns; engagement of the forces of Sr. Isidoro Torres at Malolos against Macabebe volunteers and Spanish Infantry; as well as the agreement among well-learned residents of Malolos and neighboring towns for Torres to temporarily occupy the position of Dictator of the Zone.

Thursday, June 3, 2010


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippine Revolutionary Government orders all Revolutionary Army officials and town chiefs to ensure the humane treatment of all enemy  [Spanish] prisoners-of-war, and the respect for the life and  property of all Spanish soldiers who capitulate to the revolutionary forces; additionally, Aguinaldo, in his capacity as Dictatorial President during the second phase of the Revolution against colonial Spain, orders the strict implementation of his instructions regarding conduct of negotiations with enemy troops who will surrender to Filipino forces.

Wednesday, June 2, 2010


1931 - Juan Sumulong, "Brains of the Opposition" during the ascendancy of Manuel L. Quezon,  first President of the Philippines during the American Imperialist Occupation, resigns from the Democrata party due to poor health; one of the political figures opposed to the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act that grants  the United States continued sovereignty over U.S. Military Reservations in the country, Sumulong would later bitterly denounce what will be the coalition of Quezon's Partido Nacionalista and the opposition party of Sergio Osmena, believing that political representation should be balanced to prevent oligarchy.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010


1898 - The capitulation of Spanish colonial forces led by Major Juan Enriquez to Filipino revolutionary leader, Captain Simeon Dionisio of Bataan province during the Philippine Revolution is formalized in Pilar town in the "Acta de capitulacion, Pilar, Bataan, 1 de Junio 1898";  the Act is certified by the Secretary Albino Reyes, with signatories including Capt. Dionisio on the Filipino side and Maj. Enriquez  who has supposedly witnessed the futility of further resisting the wave of Philippine revolution and has found it wiser to avert needless greater bloodshed.