Sunday, July 31, 2011


Colonial body Philippine Assembly, imperialist US Occupation 
1907 - As the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914)  persists in certain parts of the Southeast Asian  archipelago, elections are held for the Philippine Assembly,  the colonial legislative body set up during the  imperialist United States Occupation, with Sergio S. Osmena's (pro-immediate independence) Nacionalista Party capturing  majority of the 80 seats representing 80 districts;  only  less than 1.5% of the Filipinos were able to  vote their representatives to the Assembly, which  was effectively the lower house to the appointive,  all or mainly American-in-composition Philippine Commission, because of the  severe qualification requirements (real estate ownership worth at least P500; able to read and  write; and could speak in Spanish or English)

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Saturday, July 30, 2011


Filipino Nationalist Claro M. Recto

1934 - During the imperialist American Period, Claro M.  Recto is elected president of the Constitutional Convention  tasked with framing what would be called the 1935 Constitution of colonial Philippines; Recto, an outspoken nationalist and critic of the United States Military Bases, will die in Rome in 1960  due to a mysterious heart attack suspected to be a work of the Central Intelligence Agency based on an earlier CIA plan to assassinate him with a vial of poison, his having no known heart ailment, and  the US agency's record of playing 'holed condom' electoral dirty tricks on the solon during his presidential bid in the 1957 presidential elections.  

1896 - Filipino reformist, patriot and  polymath Jose Mercado Rizal receives a letter from  Gov.-Gen. Ramon Blanco permitting him to work as  physician for the Spanish Army in Cuba, 

1601 - Antonio de Morga, Spanish colonial judge for the  Philippine Islands during the colonial rule of Spin  writes King Philip II about his services in equipping and supplying and leading the naval battle with Dutch corsairs who have been preying on shipping that enter Manila harbor.

Friday, July 29, 2011


1578 - Francesco de Sande, the third Spanish colonial  governor of the Philippines, writes King Philip II a brief  report about his March-May 1578 expedition from Manila to  the southern island of Borneo in the bid to secure the submission of the natives to the Spanish crown; de Sande,  who earlier established the southern Luzon city of Nueva Caceres, enabling the arrival of the first Franciscan priests  in 1577 in the Southeast Asian archipelago, also requests the king for a reward and promotion for his victorious campaign against the early Muslim natives as a result of which the Bornean sultan became submissive to Spain; earlier in 1521, Spain "discovered" [translation: first learned about] following Spain's "discovery" [read: first learned about] what they will later name s the Philippine archipelago (Islas de San Lazaro) with the arrival of the ill-fated  expedition of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 who was killed by chieftain Lapu-Lapu and some 22 years later, the fourth Spanish colonial expedition following Magellan's ill-fated exploration, this time headed by  Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, reached Baganga Bay, Davao Oriental in the island of Mindanao, Philippine archipelago; another expedition  in 1559 marked the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines when King Philip II sent an expedition to conquer said islands that would later be named after him; earlier, the Spanish monarchy was convinced  that the Philippine islands formed part of the Spanish zone under the so-called Treaty of Tordesillas demarcation, leading to the full decision to colonize the islands and the native people.

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Thursday, July 28, 2011


Imperialist Civil Gov.-Gen William Forbes (right, back row)
1909 - Ten years into the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the imperialist United States-installed colonial civil government of  Gov.-Gen. Cameron Forbes recommends the reconstruction  of Jose Protacio Rizal's house in Dapitan where the Filipino hero was  exiled during the Spanish colonial era;  Rizal would be an "American-sponsored" figure to be made  as the Philippines' "national hero" by the Bald Eagle colonial government, chosen over the 'too radical' Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Supremo of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government fighting the Spanish rule, the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), and the 'Sublime Paralytic' Apolinario Mabini y Maranan who will be considered by the imperialists as 'unregenerate;'

 -- 54 years earlier, on July 28, 1855, Juan B. Marcaido is granted a gold medal for  his efforts and studies on the method of banana fiber  extraction by the Economics Society of Friends of the Country; on July 28, 1963, 24 Philippine Boy Scouts and  Scouter delegates to the 11th Boys Scout World Jamboree in  Marathon, Greece, perish in a airplane crash in the Arabian  Sea.

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Wednesday, July 27, 2011


1645 - Native Muslims attack the Spanish garrison with help from a Dutch squadron that arrives at Jolo from  Batavia (North Jakarta) during the Spanish colonial rule  of the Philippines; the Filipino-Spanish troops under  Commander Esteban Ugalde will resist and finally force  the withdrawal of the squadron after three days of  combat in what would be just one of the few unsuccessful  attempts of the Dutch to expel the Spaniards from the  Philippines; the contexts are Spain's tenous hold on Mindanao and  the so-called 80 Years War of  Netherlands' revolt and, subsequently, assertion of its  independence.

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Tuesday, July 26, 2011


Japanese occupies the US colony, the Philippines

1941 - Lt. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, military adviser to the United States colonial government in the Philippine Islands dubbed the "Philippine Commonwealth," is placed in active service as commander of the newly created USAFFE (United States Armed Forces in the Far East) during World War II; some 100,000 Filipino soldiers whom MacArthur has trained in modern warfare will be inducted under his command; however, in five months' time, Bataan province, where MacArthur will run to his retreat, will fall during the Japanese's
so-called December 1941-May 1942 Philippine Campaign, part of the early developments during the Pacific theatre of the Second World War, with Japan to be able to occupy the US colony, the Philippines, until 1945.

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Monday, July 25, 2011


Gen. Santiago Alvarez

1872 - Santiago Alvarez, who would become one of the most valiant generals of  the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is born in Imus, Cavite to Gen.  Mariano Alvarez and Nocilasa Virata; he will become captain general and later, commander-in-chief, of the Magdiwang chapter of the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in Cavite; Alvarez will valiantly fight the Spaniards from the outbreak of the revolution in 1896 until 1897, and will be dubbed the Hero of the  Battle of Dalahican when he will engage the Spanish troops under Gen. Ramon  Blanco in the bloody 36-hour battle, successfully repulsing the enemy  forces;  Alvarez will heroically display excellent fighting skills with his father, Mariano Alvarez, and cousin, General Pascual Alvarez--both co-Magdiwang KKK leaders--liberating Noveleta from the Spaniards on August 31, 1896 and bravely winning various battles within Noveleta, specifically in the towns of Naic, Maragondon, Magallanes, Tanza, Alfonso, Silang, Imus, and Francisco de Malabon ; however, during the United States invasion of the Philippines, Alvarez will become an American 'collaborator' of sorts, to be appointed by  William Howard Taft as presiding officer of the imperialist civil government body, the so-called Great Council of Peace Commision in 1902, three years into the protracted and very bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Alvarez will author the book "The katipunan and the revolution: memoirs of a general," an invaluable source of information on the Philippine Revolution, the rift between the Magdiwang and Magdalo chapter, and the heroism and killing of Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro under the hands of the Aguinaldo faction.

Sunday, July 24, 2011


Filipinos captured by American invaders

1898 - After having been led to believe through verbal promises by United States officials [the consuls in Singapore and Hong Kong, Admiral George Dewey and Gen. Thomas Anderson] that America is an ally, President Emilio F. Aguinaldo writes to Gen. Anderson of his people's expectations that while foreign powers have not yet acknowledged  the Philippine Republic, "the great North American nation, which  struggled first for its independence, and afterward for the  abolition of slavery and is now actually struggling for the  independence of Cuba, would look upon [Filipino assertion of  sovereignty] with greater benevolence than any other nation";  some three months back during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, intersecting with the Spanish-American War, the Bald Eagle nation, through Admiral Dewey, forged an alliance with the Filipinos, deceptively promising Aguinaldo that the U.S. will honor the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago; exactly a year later, on July 24, 1899, almost six months into the  bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Foreign Minister Apolinario Mabini y Maranan will optimistically write about  how "favorable public opinion (on Philippine independence) in America is steadily gaining ground to the detriment of the imperialist party."

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Saturday, July 23, 2011


1864 - Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, the future "Brains of the Philippine  Revolution", key adviser,  and Foreign Minister of what would be the short-lived  Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, is born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas to Dionisia Maranan and  Inocencio  Mabini during the Spanish colonial rule;  acquiring paralysis later in adulthood, Mabini will be summoned to become an adviser of Aguinaldo who, by that time, had already seized revolutionary leadership from Generalissimo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, during the time of the Philippine Revolution against Spain; Mabini will be one of the few officials of the fledgling Philippine Republic that will for some time resist the pressure of swearing fealty to the imperialist United States of America during the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) ; it will be the second phase of the Philippine Revolution that Mabini will become a key Filipino figure--his counterpart during the initial phase of the Himagsikan led by Bonifacio,  co-founder and Supremo of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan,  will be Emilio Jacinto y Dizon, who will earn the title "Brains of the Katipunan; a few years before his death, Mabini will author his memoirs of the Philippine Revolution, including his account of Aguinaldo's "insubordination" to, and the tragic "crime" and "assassination" committed against Bonifacio.

1567 - Miguel  Lopez de Legaspi, the Spanish conquistador who forged a blood  compact  with the Filipino natives and deceived them into thinking that his people were friends, subsequently facilitating Spain's colonization of the Southeast Asian islands, reports to King Philip II about how Chinese  and Japanese come yearly to some islands in the archipelago, such  as Luzon and Mindoro, to trade silk, wool bells, iron, tin, porcelains, perfumes, colored cotton cloths and other  small wares in exchange for gold and wax.

Raw image credit: National Historical Institute

Friday, July 22, 2011


Filipino soldiers resisting imperialist United States invasion 
1899 - One and one-half years into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) and 25 months after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy declared Philippine Independence from colonial Spain, gullibly invoking "the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," that was supposedly the United States of America, Aguinaldo will create an Intelligence Office in Manila to collect all available data about the invading enemy US forces for the information use of the Philippine Army and Philippine committees abroad; exactly a year later, on July 22, 1900, Aguinaldo will issue a proclamation declaring all Filipinos who attend the "peace" [translation: accept Bald Eagle rule or else...] festivals organized by the imperialist Americans are traitors to motherland.

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Thursday, July 21, 2011


Felipe Agoncillo

1898 - Felipe Agoncillo y Encarnacion, future Minister Plenipotentiary of the  fledgling Philippine Republic, writes Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, key adviser  of President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, expressing his apprehensions over  the supposed "alliance" with the Americans in apparent reference  to Aguinaldo's (unofficial and gullible) "alliance" arrangement with certain United States officials during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution; Aguinaldo's deal involved Filipinos' cooperation in the U.S. war against Spain and in return, America is supposed to honor the independence of the Filipino nation; as will later be revealed, Admiral George Dewey,  Consul-General in Singapore E. Spencer Pratt; Consul General in  Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman, and Gen. Thomas Anderson have  deceived Aguinaldo, what with the the Bald Eagle nation later invading the  Philippines come February 1899 (with the hostilities triggering the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War, 1899-1914), to be secretly instigated by the imperialist US generals upon instructions from their President William McKinley); Mabini will later write in his  memoirs that  "Mr. Aguinaldo had accepted [the verbal promises]  because he ardently desired to return to the islands, fearful that other influential Filipinos should (rob him of glory and) reach an  understanding with the Americans in the name of the people."

Wednesday, July 20, 2011


William Rufus Day,
Imperialist Asst. State Secretary

1898 - Five weeks after the Filipinos declared Philippine  independence during the Revolution against Spain, United States  Assistant Secretary of State William Rufus Day writes a letter supposedly  rebuking American Consul-General E. Spencer Pratt in Singapore  for "undiplomatically" allowing Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy to believe that the U.S. Government would recognize  the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago after Spain  is defeated and on condition that the Filipinos help the US  in the Spanish-American War; truth is, days or weeks earlier, a  number of other American officials, including Gen. Thomas Anderson,  Consul General in Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman, and particularly Admiral George Dewey took turns deceiving Aguinaldo into thinking the US will honor Filipino independence  (only 16 days  earlier, Gen. Anderson Day wrote Aguinaldo to ask him to cooperate  with the United States in the war against Spain, categorically  stating that Americans are sympathetic  with the people of the  Philippine Islands); the apparent deception would lead Aguinaldo to stupidly order the Filipino forces "not to interfere" and freely allow the American forces to position themselves for the eventual US invasion of the Philippines; by February of the following year,  Bald Eagle President William McKinley will secretly instigate hostilities leading to the the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1989-1914).

Tuesday, July 19, 2011


Bust of Gen. Simon de Anda on the wall of Santa Cruz Church

1770 - General Simon de Anda assumes the position of  governor-general of the Spanish colony,the Philippine Islands,  replacing Governor Jose RaĆ³n; during his administration, he  informs the King of Spain of complaints made against the abuses  of the friars and officials against the natives; successfully opposes the King's November 9, 1774 decree secularizing curacies held by  the regulars; repairs the walls of Manila; shortly embarks on the  building of several war vessels; some eight years earlier, Anda  was responsible for organizing a new Spanish base in Bacolor,  Pampanga during the period of British occupation of Manila.

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Monday, July 18, 2011


Spanish military map of the Philippines

1898 - Beleaguered colonial Spanish troops led by Lieutenant Commander  Juan Lalat surrender to the Filipino revolutionary forces under  Commander Vicente Quesada in Aringay, La Union  more than a  month after Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo declared the Independence of  the Philippines ("under the protection of  the powerful and Humanitarian Nation,"--unknown to Aguinaldo, the emerging imperialist superpower of the 20th century); the Spaniards have been entrenched in the convent  of this town following a sustained combat between the opposing  forces but as the Filipinos prevailed, they were forced to capitulate to Quesada, the province's revolutionary governor who  treats them with all humanitarian considerations; some three months earlier during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Aguinaldo forged an alliance with Admiral George Dewey of the U.S. that has been rather concurrently fighting a war against Spain; the "alliance," however, would turn out to be a sinister deceptive ploy of the Bald Eagle nation that would soon renege on its military leaders' promises of honoring Philippine Independence, and even staging the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that would falsely make it appear that the Americans, instead of the Filipino revolutionaries, defeated the Spanish colonial forces in the Southeast Asian archipelago and the capital, Manila, as prelude to the baseless December 1898 Treaty of Paris where by that time,  the virtually expelled Spaniards will supposedly "cede" the Philippines to imperialist America.

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Sunday, July 17, 2011


Early Chinese Rice Trader in the Philippines

1755 - Pedro Manuel de Arandia y Santestaban, governor and captain-general of colonial Philippines for the Spanish crown, reports that all non-Christian Chinese have been expelled, to be readmitted in the future only on account of trading purposes; 76 years earlier, Spanish governor for the Southeast Asian colony, Juan de Vargas, issued a royal cedula compelling all local unmarried Chinese, whether Catholic Christians or unbaptized, to live at the Parian while the married ones were to remain in Binondo, Manila; the commercial vacuum left by the expelled non-Christianized Chinese would be momentarily filled in by British traders, with the said trading interest serving to contribute to England's future colonization plans on Manila.

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Saturday, July 16, 2011


Gov.-Gen. Claveria
1844 - Narciso Claveria y Zaldua becomes governor-general of the  Philippines during the Spanish colonial rule; his administration will  be responsible for correcting the Philippine calendar; establishing the Sociedad de Recreo (Recreation Association);  the founding of papers such as Diario de Manila and La Esperanza; constructing a military library; the purchase of the first steam  war-vessel  for the Southeast Asian colony; and issuing a decree obligating the  natives to adopt Spanish surnames from a catalogue (Catalogo de Apellidos) for the purpose of easier taxation and identification, exempting  only pre-Spanish royalty and Chinese with pre-existing surnames; Claveria would also be responsible for granting Jose Oranguyen, Spanish lawyer-turned-businessman-then-(Tondo)judge-and-explorer, the permit to colonize Davao--a 'mini-conquista'--eventually leading to the area being constituted as a province (Nueva Guipizcoa) with Nueva Bergara (future Davao City) as capital; the 62nd Spanish colonial governor in the Philippines would also be responsible for the conquest of the Sulu island of Balanguingui some four years into his term, overcoming the Moros for which he would be accorded the titles viscount of claveria and count of Mnaila along with the cross of San Fernando.

Friday, July 15, 2011


Rey Felipe II de Espana
(King Philip II of Spain)

1589 - A royal fiscal in colonial Philippines, Gaspar de Ayala, writes Spain King Felipe II a detailed report on matters concerning colonial administration in the Southeast Asian  archipelago during the early decades of Spanish settlements; as well, de Ayala advises the king to construct ships and  fragata, which should be more profitable than galleys; the report of de Ayala also includes the inadequate Chinese trade; the  encomiendas of Dona Maria de Miranda; the conspiracy against  Spaniards; the rebellion in Cagayan; sequestration of illegal  Japanese ship; the conflict between the royal officials and the  bishop; the conflict between the Dominicans and Augustinians;  the need for more religious instructions; the lack of funds in the city hospital; the need for more soldiers, funds, and ammunitions  to secure the colony; a scandalous incident involving a bishop and a preacher in a cathedral; and the fierce storm that hit Manila; Spain will hold the Philippine archipelago, originally named as Archipelago of St. Lazarus by the explorer Magellan (who was slain by early freedom fighter, the native chieftain Lapu-Lapu), as a colony for more than three hundred years.

Photo credit: Wikipedia

Thursday, July 14, 2011


Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis of the imperialistic U.S.
"fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end"
1898 - President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy of the still-in-revolution Philippine Republic writes to gulliby ask George Dewey, admiral of the emerging imperialist United States, to forward  to Washington his June 18 and 23 decrees establishing a  revolutionary dictatorial government to continue the fight for  independence, further stating that "the  desires on this government are to remain always in friendship  with the great North American nation, to which we are under many obligations"; on this same day, the 4th U.S. Military  Expedition to the Philippines sails for Manila under Maj. Gen.  Elwell S. Otis, in what would later prove to be  preparation for the imperialistic American invasion of the Philippines: Otis would oversee many of the American atrocities in the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914)  that their forces would surreptitiously instigate come February of the following year, and would be quoted for saying "fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end" in response to Aguinaldo's plea for an end to the war; around eight months earlier, Dewey forged an alliance with Aguinaldo, deceptively promising to honor Philippine independence, during the (second phase of) the Philippine Revolution intersecting with the Bald Eagle's war against Spain; apparently fooled into thinking it is part of the supposed alliance, Aguinaldo a few weeks earlier ordered his men "not to interfere" with the North Americans, stupidly allowing the free entry of the G.I.'s that would lead to the infamous August 1898 Mock Battle of Manila that would falsely make it appear that the Americans--instead of the Filipino revolutionaries--are responsible for defeating the Spaniards in the Southeast Asian archipelago; the baseless Treaty of Paris "ceding" the Philippines to the Bald Eagle nation would be signed, the  U.S. Congress would approve, the enemy Americans will invade and the Filipinos would unsuccessfully fight a protracted and bloody war to preserve their newfound freedom and dignity.

Photo art: JB

Raw photo: Wikipedia

Wednesday, July 13, 2011


Gen. Miguel C. Malvar

1901 - Gen. Miguel Malvar succeeds as Commander-in-Chief of the  beleaguered Philippine Republic following  President Emilio F. Aguinaldo's treacherous capture by, and hasty swearing of fealty to, the imperialist United States forces nearly 2 1/2 years into the protracted and bloody Filipino-American War (1899-1914);
more than three years earlier, Bald Eagle Commodore George Dewey had earlier met with Aguinaldo to strike an alliance, with Filipinos in his nation's separate war with Spain, deceptively making assurances that America is intends to honor Philippine independence;  by August 1898, the US and Spain wickedly staged the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that it was the Americans instead of the Filipinos defeated the Spaniards in the capital, Manila; in five months' time, the Treaty of Paris will be signed, with the virtually ousted-by-Filipinos Spain ridiculously 'ceding' the Philippines to the Bald Eagle nation for $20,000,000 US, and on February 4, 1899, American generals will deliberately instigate the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) in the nefarious bid of the US President William McKinley to make their Congress approve the Treaty of Paris and the annexation [translation: invasion] of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation; Malvar would reverse Aguinaldo's policy of upholding elite interests,  giving importance to the role of peasantry in the anti-imperialist resistance and resulting to covert support of the townspeople to the Filipino freedom fighters while pretending to cooperate with the North American colonizers; by December 1901, Malvar would shift from defensive to offensive campaigns against a number of towns held by the enemy Americans; it would only be after US Gen. Franklin Bell's horrific reconcentration campaign that would break the back of the resistance movement in Batangas  province that Gen. Malvar will surrender to enemy flag in 1902 ; other Filipino guerrila leaders, such as Macario Sakay  and Simeon Ola, and Muslim compatriots in the South will continue  the valiant war against the heavily armed North American  invaders until about 1913. 

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Tuesday, July 12, 2011


Photo Art: JB

1899  - Filipino Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia issues a circular asking for  contributions to continue war operations against enemy American  forces, five months into the imperialistic United States invasion  of the fledgling Philippine Republic; the bloody Filipino-American War (1899-1914) broke out in February 1899 after the Republican administration of Bald Eagle President William McKinley deliberately instigated hostilities between the Filipino and American forces at the San Juan bridge as part of his sinister plan to make the US Senate approve the December 1898 Treaty of Paris to pave the way for the annexation [translation: invasion] of the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic; more than a year earlier, the emerging imperialist power that was the US  forged an alliance with revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy as part of its war against colonial Spain during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, deceptively promising to honor the independence of the Filipinos; weeks later, amidst the fact that the Filipino revolutionary forces have already wrested control of virtually all of the entire archipelago from the Spaniards, the Americans further conned Aguinaldo by asking him to "not to interfere" and allow the free entry of G.I.s into the islands only to stage the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that the Americans--instead of the Filipinos--were the ones who defeated the Spaniards in Manila; Spain and the US would then sign the Paris Treaty that 'ceded' the Philippines as McKinley justifies his undemocratic, treacherous policy before the American public by ridiculously claiming that God had supposedly spoken to him to colonize the  Southeast Asian land "to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and  Christianize them,"--this, when most of the Philippines have long been Catholic Christians. 

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Monday, July 11, 2011


1896 - Pio Valenzuela, future co-founder and auditor of the  revolutionary body Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), is born during the Spanish  colonial period; Valenzuela, just about the only ilustrado among the Katipunan founders, will also be the emissary of  Supremo Gat Andres Bonifacio y de Castro to reformist patriot and polymath Jose Mercado Rizal just before the outbreak of the Revolution;  he will turn his back on his compatriots and the revolution,  as he will go into hiding and be one of the first to avail of the amnesty offered by Spanish Governor-General Ramon Blanco  after the KKK's discovery; it will be said that Rizal's arguments against the Revolution ( as to "how it was absurd" ) will convince Valenzuela to surrender to the Spaniards some time after his talk with the reformist leader who will later testify that he "counseled against [the revolution], trying to convince him by rational arguments...took his leave persuaded";  during the United States' invasion of the Philippines, Valenzuela will  accept American's offer of serving as municipal president of Polo,  Bulacan.

Sunday, July 10, 2011


World War II Blackout Bulbs

1941 - During the imperialist American Occupation, blackout practices  in Manila and other parts of the Philippines are held in  anticipation of the Pacific Theatre phase of World War II;  apart from the blackouts wherein lights are dimmed so as not to make a certain place conspicuous  and easy  target for attacks, the colonial United States and Filipino officials also establish evacuation  centers and "air-aid drills" in the Southeast Asian archipelago some five months before the Japanese  Imperial Army begins invading the US-occupied Philippines following the Asian power's bombing of the Bald Eagle's naval base at Pearl Harbor (December 1941).

Photo credit: anderson

Saturday, July 9, 2011


US Forces, on a sinister plan to invade the Philippines, disembark

1898 - Imperialist United States Gen. Thomas M. Anderson communicates from the Philippines to the  Adjutant-General in Washington, D.C. that he foresees a  possible conflict with Filipino forces, some three months after the Americans forged an 'alliance' with the Filipinos during (the second phase of) the Philippine 'Himagsikan' against Spain; the communication of Anderson, designated commander of the US land forces in the Southeast Asian archipelago during the rather concurrent Spanish-American War, comes only three days after he had been informed by Philippine President Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy that the latter has acceded to Anderson's  request, ordering  his soldiers "not to  interfere" with the American forces who have been entering the country supposedly as part of the US efforts against Spain; Commodore George Dewey had earlier met with Aguinaldo to strike an alliance, deceptively assuring the then-revolutionary leader that America  intends to honor Philippine independence as Anderson later professed his nation's sympathy with Filipinos;  by August, the US and Spain will vilely stage the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that  the Americans instead of the Filipinos defeated the Spaniards in the Philippines; in five months' time, the Treaty of Paris will be signed, with the virtually ousted-by-Filipinos Spain ridiculously 'ceding' the Philippines to the Bald Eagle nation for $20,000,000 US, and on February 4, 1899, American generals will deliberately instigate the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) in the nefarious bid of the US President William McKinley to make their Congress approve the Treaty of Paris and the annexation [translation: invasion] of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation.

Photo credit:

Friday, July 8, 2011


Invading American soldiers march to Manila

1900 - Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy orders guerilla  officers to set aside the days between September 15 and 24 for a  general offensive against the invading United States forces, one  year and five (5) months into the bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914); two days  short of a year earlier, Aguinaldo stupidly directed his soldiers  "not to interfere" with the American forces entering the Southeast Asian  archipelago after officers of the emerging imperialist nation led by then-Admiral George Dewey forged an alliance with him against colonial Spain during the concurrent (second phase of the) Philippine Revolution and Spanish-American War, deceptively promising him that the Bald Eagle nation would honor Filipino independence; the decision to allow the free entry of the US soldier into the archipelago would prove to be a most stupid military decision, enabling the vile Americans to position themselves to steal Philippine independence--staging the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that  the Americans instead of the Filipinos defeated the Spaniards in the Philippines as supposed basis for the  ridiculous December 1898 Treaty of Paris that 'ceded' the former Spanish colony to the US.

Photo credit:

Thursday, July 7, 2011


Photo art: JB

1892 - Andres Bonifacio y de Castro and other radical members of La Liga Filipina found the Filipino secret society Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK)  with the expressed aim of complete separation from colonial Spain, a few days after the arrest of polymath and reformist patriot, Jose Mercado Rizal; the concept of the Katipunan, which will turn into a revolutionary government four years later, is said to be distinct from the reformist aims of Rizal and other ilustrado propagandists in that it wields the concept of building a state that is not only politically independent from Spain but as well have moral, civic, and political goals to be constructed from the indigenous perspective(s) of all the islands--a nation they will call  TAGALOG [referring] to all born in the Philippines from what ever ethnic group.

1899 - More than a month after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo had Gen. Antonio Luna assassinated, dispatches from Manila contain the statement that General Luna’s death has strengthened Aguinaldo’s leadereship. “Luna’s supporters are now outwardly loyal to Aguinaldo.”; Aguinaldo has been widely blamed for setting a trap for Luna's assassination on June 5, 1899, 5 months into the Philippine-American War, because he did not meet Luna despite his signed telegram calling him to a conference and because during the murder, Aguinaldo's mother looked out the window and asked: Is he still breathing?"

Wednesday, July 6, 2011


1898 - In what will prove to be a most stupid military decision,  Dictator Emilio Aguinaldo of the fledgling Philippine Republic  assures imperialist American Gen. Thomas M. Anderson that he has  already ordered his "people not to interfere" with the American  forces who has been entering the Southeast Asian archipelago  during the Spanish-American War; Aguinaldo, who has led Filipinos to defeat the Spanish forces at almost every encounter and win control over almost the entire northern provinces and the bay coast from colonial Spanish forces, had  earlier been deceptively assured by United States Commodore  George Dewey that the United States is an ally, thus forging an alliance with the Bald Eagle forces; in a few months, the  sinister and eventually successful American invasion plan against the Philippines will be revealed, initially through the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that will falsely show to the world that it is the Americans instead of the Filipinos that have defeated the Spaniards in the islands, and then when the imperialist US generals will instigate the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914) seven months later.

Photo credit: University of Texas

Tuesday, July 5, 2011


1896 - Several weeks before the breakout of the Philippine  Revolution, the Spanish colonial authorities sense activities relating  to the secret revolutionary organization, the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK) , with  Lieutenant Manuel Sityar of the Guardia Civil stationed in Pasig  sending a confidential letter to the Civil Governor of Manila informing  him of how certain individuals, especially in Mandaluyong and San  Juan del Monte, are enlisting men for unknown purposes, making  them sign in pledge with their own blood; the Katipunan was an anticolonial secret society established by Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, future KKK Supremo, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Deodato Arellano and Valentin Diaz on 7 July 1892, with political, moral and civic aims and a clear concept of one nation they referred to as TAGALOG [referring] to all born in the Philippines from what ever ethnic group.

Monday, July 4, 2011


Imperialist US Gen. Anderson
1898 - Three weeks after the declaration of the Philippine Independence when the Filipinos  have taken control of most of the archipelago, United States Gen. Thomas M. Anderson writes to  President Emilio Aguinaldo asking him for cooperation in the American war with Spain,  deceptively expressing supposed American sympathy with the people of the Philippine Islands; the imperialist Bald Eagle officers will even request--and be stupidly granted by Aguinaldo--that their forces be allowed free entry into the Southeast Asian archipelago and in seven months' time, the United States will reveal its true, sinister imperialistic design on the Philippines, deliberately and secretly instigating the bloody Filipino-American War (1899-1914), with  Gen. Anderson seeing action in the 1899 Battle of Manila where he will capture Pasay and afterwards, leading his division in minor engagements at Santana, San Pedro and Guadalupe.

Sunday, July 3, 2011


1892 - Filipino patriot and polymath Jose Mercado Rizal founds the La Liga Filipina, a secret civic society  aiming to promote social betterment, mutual protection, and solidarity of Filipino natives during the Spanish Colonial era; realizing the futility of their decade-long propaganda campaign for political reform mainly as exiles and expatriates in the 'mother' country, Rizal and other patriots inaugurate the La Liga at the house of Doroteo Ongjuco in Ilaya St., Tondo, Manila, with its bolder reformist aims seeking the natives' direct involvement; having the motto "Unus instar omnium" or "One for All," the La Liga's membership is at least initially dominated by the educated and wealthy Filipinos, with Ambrosio Salvador, Agustin dela Rosa, Bonefacio Arevalo, and Deodato Arellano as officers; Rizal has returned to the Philippines from Europe to found the society but will soon be arrested and exiled to Dapitan by Spanish officials who consider the La Liga's objectives dangerous; Rizal's arrest would soon prompt the founding of the secret society Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK)  aiming  to completely sever ties with colonial Spain by a group of radicals including Andres Bonifacio y de Castro who would nonetheless greatly work to organize La Liga chapters in various Manila districts before its eventual dissolution within several months.

Un Peso Banknote
1899 - Five months into the Filipino-American War (1899-1914), the fledgling Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo issues paper currency in  denominations of one, two, five, twenty, fifty and hundred pesos, with future autonomist  [collaborator for American rule]  Pedro A. Paterno, among others, being empowered to sign them jointly or severally; banknotes, with those bearing serial numbers signatures to be rarely issued as they are circulated along with 2 centimos de peso copper coins, are printed amidst the Filipinos' determination to assert their new-found independence from former Spanish colonial rulers against the invading imperialist forces of the Bald Eagle nation.

Photo credits:

Antonio, et al. Turning Points I' 2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc.

Saturday, July 2, 2011


Jacob G. Schurman
1st Civilian Imperialist US Representative

1899 - Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, Foreign Affairs Minister of the fledgling Philippine Republic,  writes to his friends, including Isidro de los Santos, deploring the killing of Gen. Antonio  Luna y Novicio (who was assassinated less than a month ago on apparent orders of President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy ) and also stating how  the thermal baths at Balungaw have hardly improved his health;  five months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); imperialist  representative Jacob G. Schurman of the Philippine Commission [translation: United  States colonial body commission to help colonize the Philippines] returns to Manila from a  three-week tour in the southern islands and expresses the impression is that while "the  intelligent and substantial citizens" desire an American protectorate, as the masses are  awaiting the settlement of the ongoing Fil-Am War in Luzon before making any  commitment.


Friday, July 1, 2011


Gov-Gen Agustin   -  Gat Apolinario Mabini
1898 - Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, chief adviser of Dictator Emilio Aguinaldo, requests permission to  proceed to Manila to persuade Spanish Governor-General Basilio Agustin to surrender to the  Filipinos during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against colonial Spain and three weeks after Aguinaldo declared the Independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago;  exactly two years later, on July 1, 1900, Aguinaldo's decree providing that the highest authority in the  Catholic Church in the Philippines be the Military Vicar General recognized by the President  of the Philippine Republic becomes effective, thus regulating the exercise of  ecclesisastical jurisdiction by Catholic religious people.