Tuesday, August 31, 2010

31 August

Moments before the execution of the brave, patriotic Katipuneros
 1896 - Fifty-seven Katipuneros are executed at Bagumbayan (Luneta) by Spanish colonial authorities, marking the start of a reign of terror one day after the bloody, hand-to-hand Battle of Pinaglaban that marked the first major conflict of the Philippine Revolution; two days after Supremo Andres Bonifacio led the beginning of the general uprising; and a week after the Cry of Pugadlawin declaring the start of the nationwide armed revolution against the colonial enemy Spaniards.

1897 -- Gregorio del Pilar, a lieutenant-colonel in the Philippine revolutionary army fighting colonial Spain, stages a famous assault on the barracks of the Spanish cazadores in the town convent of Paombong, Bulacan; del Pilar's extraordinary combination of wit, courage and muscles in combat will catch the attention of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Revolution who succeeded Supremo Andres Bonifacio that he had earlier ordered executed, and will soon make del Pilar part of Aguinado's circle of revolutionary leaders.

-- The Battle of Aliaga in Nueva Ecija is fought between the Spaniards and Filipino revolutionaries, with colonial Governor-General Primo de Rivera utilizing 8,000 men against the forces under the command of Generals Mamerto Natividad and Tinio; Spanish General Nuñez would be among those seriously wounded in this huge battle of the Philippine Revolution.

Monday, August 30, 2010


1898 - The bloody hand-to-hand Battle of Pinaglabanan at San Juan del Monte is fought between the Katipuneros and Spanish colonial forces, a day after Supremo Andres Bonifacio led the start of the general uprising during the Philippine Revolution; while the mostly bolo-and-sharpened-stakes-armed Filipino revolutionaries would be no match to the enemy forces equipped with Mauser rifles or pistols, the victory will prove a pyrrhic one for the Spaniards because the blood let from the approximately 150 Katipuneros who will die in battle and the many who will be captured and subsequently executed would but nourish the will of the Filipinos to carry on the fight for independence; that same day, Spanish colonial Governor-General Ramon Blanco officially declares the state of war and martial law on eight provinces,  Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas.

Photo credit:


Sunday, August 29, 2010


Katipuneros, in the undergrowth,  fight enemy Spanish troops 
 1896 - The Katipuneros, Filipino revolutionaries led by its Supremo, Andres Bonifacio, starts the general uprising against Spain midnight of this day, a Saturday, with its first offensive attacking an isolated colonial garrison in Luzon island during the Philippine Revolution; despite the arrests, cruel torture, and/or incarceration of suspected revolutionaries, including Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) who is arrested and jailed at Bilibid Prison for giving aid to the Katipuneros, the flame of revolution would swiftly engulf nearby towns, with Spanish Governor-General Blanco declaring the state of war and martial law  in eight provinces; the offensive came a day after Bonifacio issued a manifesto setting the date as the beginning of the general uprising, five days after the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan was hastily transformed into a revolutionary national government following its discovery through a traitor, Teodor Patino, who told of its existence to his sister nun.

Saturday, August 28, 2010


1898 - Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Supremo of the revolutionary government, Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), issues a manifesto setting August 29 as the beginning of the general uprising against colonial Spain; the manifesto came nine days after the Spaniards ascertained its existence, four days after the National Assembly transformed the KKK into a revolutionary national government, and three days after Bonifacio led the Katipuneros in successfully repelling the outnumbered Spaniards during the first skirmish of the Philippine Revolution.

1898 - Two months after the Philippines declared Independence from Spain, imperialist United States assigns Gen. Wesley Merritt as "military governor" of the Southeast Asian archipelago; the US had earlier vilely engaged the services of the Filipinos in fighting Spain, with its military and diplomatic officials conning its leader, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, into stupidly cooperating and allowing the free entry of G.I.s by making separate verbal assurances that the US will honor Philippine independence, thus enabling the Americans to stage the infamous Mock Battle of Manila.

Photo credit: http://komiklopedia.wordpress.com/2008/03/20/philippine-literary-series/andresbonifacio1/

Friday, August 27, 2010


Imperialist US soldiers in pursuit of Aguinaldo
1900 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, President of the First Philippine Republic-on-the-run following the invasion by the imperialist United States, decides to march to Palanan, Isabela and out of Tierra Virgen upon learning that the pursuing enemy American forces have landed at Aparri, leaving behind Capt. Julian H. del Pilar and Capt. Villareal to harass the enemy; following the outbreak of the Filipino-American War on February 4, 1899, the significantly more heavily armed and better trained US forces that at times employ ruthless military tactics such as "water cure" and hamletting have forced the Philippine Army to adopt guerrilla tactics to score against the imperialist soldiers, with Aguinaldo eventually being forced to retreat farther to the northern provinces.

Photo credit: http://casiguran.blogspot.com/2006_07_01_archive.html

Thursday, August 26, 2010


1898 - Filipino revolutionary leader Andres Bonifacio unfurls the flag of the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in Balintawak, a day after he led the Katipuneros in repelling the colonial Spanish forces during the first skirmish of the Philippine Revolution, and two days after the National Assembly transformed the Katipunan into a national government with democratically elected officials leading the nation and the revolutionary army; the Katipunan a week earlier was an underground movement aiming to unite the country and gain independence from Spain by means of a revolution until it was discovered by the colonial authorities through a friar who broke his vow of (confessional) silence. 

Photo credit: http://wpedia.goo.ne.jp/enwiki/Flags_of_the_Philippine_Revolution

Wednesday, August 25, 2010


Andres Bonifacio & Tandang Sora (Melchora Aquino)
1896 - The first encounter of the Philippine Revolution against colonial Spain occurs at the barn of Melchora Aquino in Caloocan when Spanish civil guards and infantrymen opened fire at the temporary headquarters of the Katipuneros six days after the official discovery of the underground revolutionary movement, the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK); occurring a day after the National Assembly (Kataastaasang Kapulungan) that transformed the KKK into a revolutionary national government and declared a nationwide armed revolution of independence, Supremo Andres Bonifacio successfully leads the counterattack of fellow Katipuneros, forcing the outnumbered Spaniards to retreat. ; a similar incident transpires in Pasong Tamo, with forces of the colonial Spaniards and that of the Katipunan revolutionary government (Haring Bayang Katagalugan/Republika ng Katagalugan).

1901 - Filipino nationalists and officers of the Philippine Republic, Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, along with his brother, and Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia, and Aquilino Randeza remain unyielding in their loyalty to the Filipino flag and their compatriots, refusing to swear allegiance to the imperialist United States flag and/or Constitution even as their exiled companions in Guam yield to the pressures of invading American authorities and take their oaths before the symbol(s) of the Bald Eagle nation; Mabini and Ricarte are high-ranking officers of the Philippine Republic who were caught, imprisoned and exiled by the enemy American forces following the outbreak of the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) in February 1899.

Photo credit: http://www.qcpubliclibrary.org/qcmanuscript.php

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

24 August

1896 - Following the official discovery of the Katipunan, the revolutionary Philippine underground movement, Katipuneros arrive at the barn of Melchora Aquino for their hurried National Assembly, with Supremo Andres Bonifacio and members of the Supreme Council (Kataastaaang Kapulungan), heads of the supramunicipal (sangunian) and chapter (balangay) units of the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in attendance; American colonial military historian John R. M. Taylor will later come to the conclusion that the Katipunan was the first national government of the Philippines, writing that Bonifacio turned the Katipunan "lodges into battalions, his grandmasters into captains, and the supreme council of the Katipunan" into a revolutionary body fighting for independence against colonial Spain.

Monday, August 23, 2010


The First Cry (of Pugadlawin)
1896 - Filipino revolutionary leader Andres Bonifacio and other Katipuneros  tear their cedulas in declaration of the start of the war against colonial Spain and in what has become known as the The First Cry (of Pugadlawin); meeting at the farm the son of Melchora Aquino at Pugad Lawin, Supremo Bonifacio has challenged the members of the revolutionary secret society, Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), to "Bring out your cedulas and tear them to pieces to symbolize our determination to take up arms," a few days after the Spanish authorities discovered the KKK through a Spanish friar who broke his vow of (confessional) silence and subsequently deciphered its secret codes; therein, the Katipuneros declared the start of the nationwide armed revolution and through the National Assembly that will follow a day after, will then transform the KKK into a national government, electing officials to lead the nation and army.  

Photo credit: http://www.qcpubliclibrary.org/qcmanuscript.php

Sunday, August 22, 2010


1896 - Supremo Andres Bonifacio and fellow Katipuneros, Filipino revolutionaries against colonial Spain, exchange views on the Revolution during a general assembly in Kangkong, three days after the secret movement Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) is discovered and arrests of suspected revolutionaries have been made.

1898 - The seat of the fledgling Philippine Republic is transferred by President Emilio Aguinaldo who issues a decree ordering his men to prepare in moving the capital and headquarters from Bacoor, Cavite, to Malolos Bulacan; the order came nine days after the Mock Battle of Manila made it clear to Aguinaldo the intent of the imperialist United States to invade the Philippines and that its officials, including Admiral George Dewey and Gen. Thomas Anderson had conned him into stupidly cooperating in the war against Spain, even to the point of ridiculously allowing the free entry of US soldiers to the Southeast Asian archipelago.

Photo credit: http://www.cebu-philippines.net/philippine-heroes.html

Saturday, August 21, 2010


Spanish colonial soldiers execute Filipino revolutionaries
1896 - Two days after the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) is discovered by Spanish colonial authorities, Supremo Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto decide to use numbers instead of letters in changing the revolutionary society's code that has earlier been cracked by the enemies during the Philippine Revolution against Spain; during the same day, revolutionary and Mason Faustino Villaruel is arrested and imprisoned at Fort Santiago as some 500 revolutionaries leave Balintawak for the neighboring Kangkong hamlet where Katipunero Apolinario Samson provides them lodging and food.

1983 -Opposition leader ex-Sen. Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino II is assassinated at the tarmac of the then-Manila International Airport after arriving from the United States where he was allowed to undergo medical operation for his heart condition following his incarceration for seven years and seven months during Martial Law; the blame for the murder will be pinned by the succeeding administration of Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, Ninoy's widow, on the Marcoses although one of the soldiers convicted for the murder will later point to businessman Eduardo "Dangding" Cojuangco, Ninoy's cousin, as the real mastermind for the dastardly killing. 

Photo credit: http://josepherdon.blogspot.com/2008/12/andres-bonifacio.html

Friday, August 20, 2010


1896 - A day after the discovery of the Philippine revolutionary movement Katipunan by Spanish colonial authorities, Pio Valenzuela follows the group of Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, leader of the nationalist society aiming to break the yoke of colonial domination,the Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK), to Balintawak for an important meeting; Agustin de la Rosa, one of the early officers of La Liga Filipina, along with fellow masons are arrested by the  Guardia Civil Veterana as the lodge founded by the former is discovered; Bonifacio and the Katipuneros will soon transform the KKK into a revolutionary government and in just over a week, the Philippine Revolution will break out. 

1898 - In line with its scheme of invading the Philippines, the imperialist American  government succeeds in its typical divide-and-rule tactic when Gen. John C. Bates forges a formal agreement with Sulu's Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, wherein the sultanate is to be considered a United States protectorate and friendly relations are supposed to be maintained between the two parties; in contrast, American officials have conned Filipino revolutionary leader Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy into cooperating in the war against Spain, verbally assuring him of  US sympathy with the independentist cause of the Filipinos, but with American President William McKinley actually scheming to invade the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic and eventually secretly orchestrating the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1914)


Photo credit: http://www.freewebs.com/julabbi_cairo12/Seals.htm

Thursday, August 19, 2010


1896 - The Philippine revolutionary movement is prematurely  discovered by the Spaniards when the hated Fr. Mariano Gil, the  curate of Tondo who has heard about it through a confession from a Filipino traitor,  breaks his vow of silence and reports about its existence and headquarters to the colonial authorities; in response to the  mounting cruelty inflicted by the Spaniards on  members of Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) who have been arbitrarily arrested  and imprisoned, Supremo Andres Bonifacio instructs messengers  to summon his leaders to a general assembly to discuss measures  to counter the development; later, a Katipunan poster threatening the killing of Fr. Gil would appear on the poster of the Tondo church.

1939 -  On his 61st birthday, Manuel L. Quezon, President of the  American-sponsored Commonwealth government of the  Philippines, issues Executive Order No. 217 that prescribes a  16-point code of ethics to be taught in all schools in the  Southeast Asian archipelago.

Photo credit: http://www.filipiniana.net/ArtifactView.do?artifactID=PRR004000008

Wednesday, August 18, 2010


Imperialist U.S. hoisted flag on Fort Santiago, Manila
 1898 - The emerging power that is the United States proceeds with its imperialistic plan of invading the Philippines as Gen. Wesley Merritt is instructed to make the Filipinos recognize the military occupation and "authority" of the Bald Eagle nation; some three months after Americans first conned Aguinaldo into cooperating in the war against Spain; some two months after the Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence and allowed the free entry of US soldiers into the archipelago; five days after the Mock Battle of Manila made it appear that it is the Americans and not the Filipinos who have defeated the Spaniards in the Southeast Asian archipelago; and four days after the western aliens began their colonial propaganda efforts when Gen. Merritt issued a proclamation calling on the Filipinos not to resist US invasion.

Photo credit: Filipiniana.com

Tuesday, August 17, 2010


 President Jose P. Laurel delivering a 1943 speech during the
 inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines

1945 - Two days after Japan surrendered unconditionally in World War II, President Jose P. Laurel announces the dissolution of the [Second] Republic of the Philippines established during the Japanese Occupation of the Southeast Asian archipelago; under Japanese sponsorship and in line with the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere scheme, the 1943 Constitution of the Philippines creating a Republican state with a a powerful executive branch, with the President to be elected from among members of the unicameral National assembly and with subordinate legislative and judicial branches, was drafted, approved and submitted for ratification during the Kalibapi  [Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas] convention in Manila; however, Filipino guerillas and the American colonial Commonwealth-in-exile led by President Sergio Osmena have refused to recognize the Japanese-sponsored Laurel government. 

1898  - Four days after the infamous Mock  Battle of Manila, the second expeditionary [translation:invasion] forces of the looming 20th century imperialist nation, the United States,  arrive and land at Parañaque, located midway between Manila and Cavite, and led by Gen. Francis V. Greene.

Photo credit: http://www.freewebs.com/philippineamericanwar/captureofaguinaldo1901.htm

Monday, August 16, 2010

16 August

1599 - King Philip III writes Francisco de Tello de Guzman, colonial Spanish governor of the Philippine Islands, informing the latter of his order for Nueva Espana to send able settlers to the Southeast Asian colony; the communication, which came about a year after the monarch gained the title of Rey Felipe III, is  contained in two letters of the same date that commends Tello for the restoration of peace [translation: successful subjugation of the rebelling natives] in Mindanao and Pampanga and, as well, asks for advice as to whether he, the king, should increase duties on Chinese goods. 

Photo credit: http://thepeerage.com/p10278.htm

Sunday, August 15, 2010


Gen. Mariano Trias
1898 - Two days after the Mock Battle of Manila between Spanish and American forces, the imperialist Bald Eagle nation lay the civilian framework for the invasion of the Philippines by assigning military officers to duty to assume civil government in the City of Manila and the district of Cavite; the development came  a day after the imperialist United States began its colonial propaganda efforts through Gen. Wesley Merritt's proclamation calling on the Filipinos not to resist US invasion, three days after the Peace Protocol between Spain and the US, and some three months after American officials deceived Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, the ambitious President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, into believing that their government will honor the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago amidst the Filipino soldiers' virtual victory against the Spanish colonial forces.

-- exactly two years later, on August 15, 1900, one and one-half years into the Filipino-American War, after the fledgling Philippine Republican Army has been disbanded into guerrilla units, Aguinaldo will issue a circular to Gen. Mariano Trias asking the latter to reorganize the old revolutionary movement, the KKK (Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan) because it is seen as a great help in defense of motherland and in ending gambling and other vices.

Saturday, August 14, 2010


Imperialist American Gen. Wesley Merritt
begins the Propaganda 6 Months before
the Philippine-American War

1898 - The imperialist United States begins its propaganda efforts as part of the looming invasion of the Philippine archipelago, a day after the infamous Mock Battle of Manila; Gen. Wesley Merritt proclaims in English, Tagalog, and Spanish that Americans supposedly did not come "to wage war" upon the Filipinos but to "protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights"--understood to be contingent, of course, on the natives' unpatriotic acceptance of the Bald Eagle nation's colonization of the islands; the proclamation came some three months after American officials first verbally conned Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo into believing the US will honor Philippine Independence, came five weeks after Gen. Thomas M. Anderson asked for Filipinos' military cooperation against Spain and after Aguinaldo most stupidly ordered his soldiers "not to interfere" and allow American forces to enter the native territory, came two days after Spain and the US signed the Peace Protocol 'authorizing' the latter to occupy and hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty set to  define the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines, and some six months before the start of the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War. 

Friday, August 13, 2010


Imperialist American soldiers enter Manila, August 13, 1898

1898 - The "Mock Battle of Manila" occurs between Spanish and American forces, a day after the signing of the Protocol of Peace, as part of the two powers' imperialistic, shoddy and detestably anti-democratic deal to transfer Spanish colonial possessions to the United States, thus depriving  thus depriving Filipinos of their rightful revolutionary victory against colonial Spain; President Emilio Aguinaldo of the still-in-revolution Philippine Republic, who was conned into cooperating with the Americans against Spain on mere verbal assurances that the US will honor Philippine Independence, earlier stupidly allowed the free entry of American soldiers in the Southeast Asian archipelago starting two months earlier in June, thus delaying what should have been the Filipino's victory in Intramuros, the colonial seat of Spanish power--this, despite the fact that Filipino revolutionaries had already encircled Manila.

Photo credit: http://www.freewebs.com/philippineamericanwar/mockbattleofmanila.htm

Thursday, August 12, 2010


Colonial Spain & Imperialist United States sign
 the Protocol of Peace in Washington
1898 - Filipinos' rightful and moral aspirations for sovereignty is doomed with the signing of the Peace Protocol between colonial Spain and emerging imperialist power, the United States, in Washington; the agreement halts further hostilities between the two powers and largely sets the terms for the formal peace Treaty of Paris that was to be signed two months later which will stipulate, among others, Spain's ceding of the Philippines in exchange for $20 million--this, despite the fact that the Filipinos has already declared independence from Spain after gaining control of most of the archipelago, and with the shoddy Americans accepting and utilizing the services of the Filipinos in helping overcome the Spaniards during the Spanish-American War. 

Photo credit: http://americanhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/exhibition/zoomify.asp?id=2242&type=g&width=640&height=480&hideAlt=1

Wednesday, August 11, 2010


Imperialist United States soldiers march to Manila

1898 - The camp of Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo, which has already seized control of most of the archipelago away from the Spanish colonial forces, finally realizes that the Yankees are preparing to take the city of Manila as Filipino forces besieging Intramuros notice a general movement among American militia units; five weeks earlier, Aguinaldo has stupidly ordered his soldiers  "not to interfere" with the American forces which have been entering the country following American officers' deceptive assurances that the US is in sympathy with the independist cause of the Filipinos; within six months, the imperialist United States will invade the Philippines, with the ensuring Filipino-American War to be latter dubbed by certain historians as the "First Vietnam."

Photo credit: Filipiniana.net

Tuesday, August 10, 2010


Antonio Ma. Regidor, Diplomat 

1898 - Spanish-blooded Filipino Antonio Ma. J. Regidor becomes a member of the Executive Board of the Hong Kong Junta tasked with seeking international recognition of Philippine sovereignty following the June 12 declaration of Independence against colonial Spain;  Regidor, who will be part of the Agoncillo missions that will present the Philippine case before the United States Congress, believe that the only real and enduring tie between Filipinos and Americans are commercial in nature, and will advocate financial and economic, but not political/colonial, relations with the US. 

Monday, August 9, 2010


Pedro A. Paterno, turncoat 2x

1897 - Filipino illustrado Pedro  A. Paterno offers to mediate a peace pact between the revolutionary forces now led by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and the Spanish colonial regime under Gov. Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera, supposedly necessary to bring about a new series of reforms to assure Philippine prosperity, which would result to the Pact of Biak-na-Bato; the mediation of Paterno, who would later be the second Prime Minister of the fledgling First Republic, would also be regarded in history  as an infamous turncoat siding with the colonial Spaniards and later the imperialist Americans.

Sunday, August 8, 2010


Anti-US Imperialist Democrat William J. Bryan

1900 - One and one-half years into the  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Democratic presidential nominee William Jennings Bryans makes his acceptance speech condemning the United States invasion of the Philippines as an egregious deviation from the most sacred  traditions and principles supposedly held by the Bald Eagle nation; in his speech entirely devoted to the impropriety and adverse effects of American imperialism. he says that: “There can be no doubt that we did so we had full knowledge that they were fighting for their own independence, and I submit that history furnishes no example of greater turpitude than ours if we now substitute our yoke for the Spanish yoke”; Bryan, who would never win the US presidency but would become a leading "anti-imperialist," also believes that if the Americans were to "govern [the Filipinos] without their consent ... we dare not educate them, lest they learn to read the Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States and mock us for our inconsistency."

Saturday, August 7, 2010


1943 - The 1943 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation is drafted, creating a Republican state with a powerful executive branch, the President to be elected by the National Assembly from among themselves, and subordinate legislative and judicial branches and requiring for, among others,  the development of Tagalog as the national language; drafted by the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence (PCPI) headed by Jose P. Laurel in a manner conforming with the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, the 1943 Charter will not be recognized by the American colonial Commonwealth government in-exile during World War II.

1898 - As part of the  infamous Mock Battle of Manila wherein the imperialist-in-the-making that would falsely make it appear that the Americans, instead of the Filipino revolutionaries, are responsible for defeating the Spanish colonial forces in the Southeast Asian archipelago and the capital, Admiral Dewey and General Merritt, through the British Vice Consul, H.A. Ramsden, supposedly issue a joint ultimatum to the Spanish authorities stating that “the land and naval forces of the United States would commence operations against the defenses of Manila at any time after the expiration of the forty-eight hours from the hour of receipt by you of this communication.” They ask the Spanish Captain-General to remove non-combatants from the City of Manila before the Americans start bombarding the City.

Image credit: http://img108.imageshack.us/i/bookiw3.jpg/

Friday, August 6, 2010


1907 - Gen. Macario Sakay, one of the Filipino military leaders who continued fighting the imperialist United States invaders eight years into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914), was meted out the death sentence; Sakay, who had established the Republika ng Katagalugan (entire Philippines) with a popularly backed guerilla operations in Morong, Laguna, Cavite and Quezon in defiance of the colonial American government, was deceived by colonial Gov.-Gen. Henry Clay Ide who said his surrender was necessary to give way to the election of an all-Filipino Philippine Assembly legislature and also promised him and his supporters amnesty.

1898 -  Generals Artemio Ricarte and Pio del Pilar express their misgivings to Emilio Aguinaldo about the true nature of American policy towards the Philippines; this as Aguinaldo issues a proclamation to the United States and all foreign governments explaining the nature and scope of the Revolutionary Government and the proclamation of country's independence by provincial represenatatives, begging for the protection of all nations of the civilized world and beseeching their formal recognition of the state of belligerence and the independence of the Philippines.”

Thursday, August 5, 2010


President Manuel Roxas, who campaigned for Parity Rights,
 w/ American Clark Air Base Officials

1946 - The Congress of the Philippines ratifies the Treaty of General Relations entered into by and between the Republic of the Philippines and its former colonizer, the United States, on July 4, 1946; the Treaty is crafted in such a way that it makes room for arrangements that allow continued imperialist American military, political and economic hold on the Southeast Asian archipelago, as  to be expressed in the 1947 Parity Amendment to the 1935 Constitution giving US citizens equal rights with the Filipinos in the exploitation of Philippine natural resources, and the 1947 Military Bases and Military Assistance pacts, which were to be superseded by the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement and the Mutual Defense Treaty that.

Wednesday, August 4, 2010


Military flag of Spanish Empire from 16th to mid 18th century
1625 - Gov. Fernando de Silva, appointed successor to  Gov. Alonso Fajardo de Tenza in colonial Philippines,  notifies King Philip IV of Spain of his arrival in the  islands and reports the condition of affairs, including:  his recommendation for the restoration of the captive Ternatan king; his intent to very severely punish the  rebellion in Cagayan; abandonment of the attempt at  working the Igorrote gold mines; request for greater  authority to restrain the lawless religious who ignores  the civil authorities; and his hope to obtain the  needed ships to defend their Philippine possession  against the powerful Dutch fleet has actually already reached Ternate.

1898 - American Consul Oscar F. Williams cables U.S. Secretary of State William R. Day to report that he has tried to convince Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo that American rule over the Philippines will supposedly bring greater honor, progress, and profit to the natives compared to any scheme the Filipino leader and his advisers can ever devise, adding that he is on better terms with Aguinaldo than the American military commanders are.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010


Gen. Vicente Lucban flanked by imperialist American captors
1900 - One and one-half years into the American  invasion, President of the Philippine  Republic-on-the-run Emilio Aguinaldo issues a  manifesto appealing to appealing to his countrymen  not to listen to the Filipino collaborators but to fight ceaselessly for their rights until victory against the enemy is achieved and independence won  and recognized; exactly a year later, after the capture of several officials and their subsequent swearing of  fealty to the imperialist Bald Eagle nation, including Aguinaldo,  Gen. Ambrosio Mojica, Gen. Vicente Lukban of the Samar-Leyte command issues a  proclamation, part of which says: "Nothing, in truth,  is more natural than that we should continue the  struggle, whatever be the obstacles placed in our way  and despite the capture of him who was our  generals;… We should let the world know that the  Philippine army is captured, another at once comes  forward and succeeds him; that we fight, not at the  suggestion of others, but because of our own personal  convictions; and that, finally, we are worthy of  independence and of universal respect, because we  know our rights and how to die in their defense…"

-- 1898 - In a speech at Kawit in Cavite province, Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, pleads with local officials to keep unity, peace, and upright conduct; the appeal comes amidst apprehensions expressed by Felipe Agoncillo and Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's diplomatic official and key adviser, respectively, over the former's supposed "alliance" with the Americans, with some Filipino soldiers already thinking at that point they they might need to fight a war with the pale-skinned US forces.

Photo credit: http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/thelastholdouts.htm

Monday, August 2, 2010


Gen. Isidoro Torres

1900 - Gen. Isidoro Torres, the politico-military chief of Bulacan province, receives from Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Philippine Republic on the run during the Filipino-American War, a letter instructing him to adopt effective counter-measures against the imperialist American soldiers who make alluring offers to tempt the native soldiers to abandon the fight for the sovereignty of their motherland; during the inauguration of the Philippine Republic on January 23, 1899, Torres led a 6,000-strong army that marched in the historic parade, which occurred just under two weeks before the imperialist American nation began its invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago.

Sunday, August 1, 2010


President Manuel L. Quezon (1878-1944)
 1898 - The Act proclaiming Philippine  Independence is proclaimed in Bacoor, Cavite  during the first convention of town/municipal  presidents that included representatives from Tanguay, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Morong,  Pampanga, Manila, Tarlac, Bulacan, Batangas,  Bataan, Infanta, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales,  Tayabas, and Mindoro; ironically, as the act declares that the Philippine Revolution against Spain is a rational and legitimate action of the Filipino people, who are valiantly defending their national pride and dignity, and asks all foreign governments to recognize the Filipino nation and its sovereignty, during the very same day, the troops of the imperialist United States earlier  freely allowed to enter the country (by a gullible  Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo) are organized into a division commanded by Gen. Thomas Anderson, later to take part in the undemocratic American invasion of the Philippines and commence the bloody Filipino-American War.

1944 - Manuel Luis Quezon, first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under the colonial occupation of the  imperialist United States, dies from tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York during World War II while the Southeast Asian country was under Japanese Occupation.