Monday, August 6, 2012


1907 - Gen. Macario Sakay, one of the Filipino military leaders who had continued fighting the imperialist United States invaders eight years into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914), is meted out the death sentence; essentially based on the ideals and principles of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) during the Philippine Revolution against Spain,  Sakay had established the Republika ng Katagalugan (entire Philippines) with a popularly backed guerrilla operations in Morong, Laguna, Cavite and Quezon in patriotic defiance of the colonial American government, was deceived by colonial Gov.-Gen. Henry Clay Ide who made it appear that Sakay's  his surrender was necessary to give way to the election of an all-Filipino Philippine Assembly legislature, falsely promising him and his supporters amnesty; upon his deceptive abduction by the imperialist Bald Eagle authorities, Sakay could only exclaim to Dominador Gomez, the Filipino collaborator who helped in his trickery: "Tell the Americans to face us in the open field, in honorable battle.”

1898 -  Generals Artemio Ricarte and Pio del Pilar express their misgivings to President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy as to the real nature of American policy towards the Philippines; this as Aguinaldo issues a proclamation to the United States and all foreign governments explaining the nature and scope of the Revolutionary Government and the proclamation of country's independence by provincial representatives, begging for the protection of all nations of the civilized world and beseeching their formal recognition of the state of belligerence and the independence of the Philippines;” by February 4 the following year, the imperialist-in-the-making Bald Eagle nation will instigate the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and will eventually successfully invade and occupy the Southeast Asian nation until 1946 when it will "grant" the Philippines independence (but not before ensuring its neocolonial status through through agreements and  treaties aimed at manipulating and controlling Filipinos' political and economic lives.

Sunday, August 5, 2012


President Manuel Roxas, who campaigned for Parity Rights,
 w/ American Clark Air Base Officials

1946 - The Congress of the Philippines ratifies the Treaty of General Relations entered into by and between the Republic of the Philippines and its former colonizer, the United States, on July 4, 1946; the Treaty with the Bald Eagle nation is crafted in such a way that it makes room for arrangements that allow continued imperialist American military, political and economic hold on the Southeast Asian archipelago, as  to be expressed in the 1947 Parity Amendment in the 1935 Constitution giving US citizens equal rights with the Filipinos in the exploitation of Philippine natural resources, and the 1947 Military Bases and Military Assistance pacts allowing U.S. access to 22 military, naval, and air bases in the Philippines (which were to be superseded by the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement and the Mutual Defense Treaty)  the General Relations treaty will become a subject of continued controversy and criticism, dubbed as a neocolonial arrangement by Filipino nationalists, including foremost nationalist of the period Claro M. Recto: the US will initially arrogate to itself the title over the base lands but following criticism by Recto who will state that American right over the base territories is only "just utendi" and that the subsequent Bases Agreement  only a 'lease,' the US will later formally deliver the base lands' muniments of title to the Philippines through then US Vice-President Richard Nixon.

Saturday, August 4, 2012


Military flag of Spanish Empire from 16th to mid 18th century
1625 - Gov. Fernando de Silva, appointed successor to  Gov. Alonso Fajardo de Tenza in colonial Philippines,  notifies King Philip IV of Spain of his arrival in the  islands and reports the condition of affairs, including:  his recommendation for the restoration of the captive Ternatan king; his intent to very severely punish the  rebellion in Cagayan; abandonment of the attempt at  working the Igorrote gold mines; request for greater  authority to restrain the lawless religious who ignores  the civil authorities; and his hope to obtain the  needed ships to defend their Philippine possession  against the powerful Dutch fleet that has actually already reached Ternate.

1898 - Some nine days prior to the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that would falsely make it appear that the Americans, instead of the Filipino revolutionaries, defeated the Spanish colonial forces in the Southeast Asian archipelago and the capital, Manila, Consul Oscar F. Williams of the emerging imperialist United States cables American Secretary of State William R. Day to report that he has tried to convince Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy that American rule over the Philippines will supposedly bring greater honor, progress, and profit to the natives compared to any scheme the Filipino leader and his advisers can ever devise; Williams adds that he is on better terms with Aguinaldo than the United States military commanders are with Aguinaldo, the leader of the second phase of the Philippine Revolution who has stupidly forged an "alliance" with U.S. Admiral George Dewey and believed his and other American military and diplomatic officials' verbal deceptive promises that the Bald Eagle nation will honor Philippine independence; apparently realizing that the imperialist Americans have him duped, Aguinaldo--who weeks earlier even ridiculously instructed his men to allow the G.I.'s to freely enter the archipelago--will then try to 'negotiate' Filipinos' independence; the Mock Battle of Manila will form the prelude to the baseless December 1898 Treaty of Paris where by that time, the virtually expelled Spaniards will supposedly "cede" the Philippines to imperialist America, ultimately leading to the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

Friday, August 3, 2012


1900 - One and one-half years into the protracted and bloody period of American  invasion (Filipino-American War, 1899-1914), the President of the Philippine  Republic-on-the-run Emilio Aguinaldo issues a  manifesto wherein he appeals to the Filipinos  not to listen to  native collaborators but, rather, to continue fighting without end in defence of their rights until victory against the imperialist enemy is achieved and independence won and recognized.

1901 - exactly a year later, following the capture of several officials and their subsequent swearing of  fealty to the imperialist Bald Eagle nation, including Aguinaldo,  Gen. Ambrosio Mojica, Gen. Vicente Lukban of the Samar-Leyte command issues a  proclamation, part of which says: 
"Nothing, in truth,  is more natural than that we should continue the  struggle, whatever be the obstacles placed in our way  and despite the capture of him who was our  generals;… We should let the world know that the  Philippine army is captured, another at once comes  forward and succeeds him; that we fight, not at the  suggestion of others, but because of our own personal  convictions; and that, finally, we are worthy of  independence and of universal respect, because we  know our rights and how to die in their defense…"

1898 - In a speech at Kawit in Cavite province, Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, pleads with local officials to keep unity, peace, and upright conduct; the appeal comes amidst apprehensions expressed by Felipe Agoncillo and Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's diplomatic official and key adviser, respectively, over the former's supposed "alliance" with the Americans, with some Filipino soldiers already thinking at that point they they might need to fight a war with the pale-skinned US forces.

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Thursday, August 2, 2012


Hen. Isidoro Torres y Dayao
1900 - Gen. Isidoro Torres y Dayao, the politico-military chief of Bulacan province, receives from Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, President of the Philippine Republic-on-the-run during the  Filipino-American War (1899-1914), a letter instructing him to adopt effective counter-measures against the imperialist American soldiers who make alluring offers to tempt the native soldiers to abandon the fight for the sovereignty of their motherland; during the inauguration of the Philippine Republic on January 23, 1899, Torres led a 6,000-strong army that marched during the historic parade, which occurred just under two weeks before the United States began its invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago; earlier in the summer of 1897 during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, with the US rather concurrently fighting a war against Spain,  American Admiral George Dewey forged an "alliance"  with Aguinaldo; such 'alliance,' however, would turn out to be a sinister deceptive ploy of the Bald Eagle nation that would soon renege on its military leaders' promises of honoring Philippine Independence, and even staging the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that would falsely make it appear that the Americans, instead of the Filipino revolutionaries, defeated the Spanish colonial forces in the archipelago and the capital, Manila, as prelude to the baseless December 1898 Treaty of Paris where by that time,  the virtually expelled Spaniards will supposedly "cede" the Philippines to imperialist America.

Wednesday, August 1, 2012


Pangulong Manuel L. Quezon (1878-1944)
 1898 - The Act proclaiming Philippine Independence is declared in Bacoor, Cavite  during the first convention of town/municipal  presidents that included representatives from Tanguay, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Morong,  Pampanga, Manila, Tarlac, Bulacan, Batangas,  Bataan, Infanta, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales,  Tayabas, and Mindoro; ironically, as the act declares that the Philippine Revolution against Spain is a rational and legitimate action of the Filipino people who are valiantly defending their national pride and dignity, and asks all foreign governments to recognize the Filipino nation and its sovereignty, during the very same day, the troops of the imperialist United States earlier  freely allowed to enter the country (by a gullible Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo) are organized into a division commanded by Gen. Thomas Anderson a that, in about six months' time, will take part in the undemocratic American invasion of the Philippines and commence the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); beginning some three months earlier during the start of the so-called second phase of the Philippine Revolution that intersected with the Spanish-American War , a succession of military and diplomatic Bald Eagle officials including Anderson himself  and Admiral George Dewey conned Aguinaldo in forging an alliance against Spain on the vilely false promise that the U.S. will honor Philippine Independence.

1944 - Manuel Luis Quezon, first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under the colonial occupation of the  imperialist United States, dies from tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York during World War II while the Southeast Asian country was under Japanese Occupation.

Tuesday, July 31, 2012


Colonial body Philippine Assembly, imperialist US Occupation

1907 - As the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) persists in certain parts of the Southeast Asian archipelago, elections are held for the Philippine Assembly, the colonial legislative body set up during the imperialist United States Occupation, with Sergio S. Osmena's (pro-immediate independence) Nacionalista Party capturing majority of the 80 seats representing 80 districts; only less than 1.5% of the Filipinos were able to vote their representatives to the Assembly, which was effectively the lower house to the appointive, all or mainly American-in-composition Philippine Commission, because of the severe qualification requirements (real estate ownership worth at least P500; able to read and write; and could speak in Spanish or English); the imperialist Americans began invading the Southeast Asian archipelago at the turn of the century after conning Filipino revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy into cooperating with them to fight Spain during the so-called second phase of the Philippine Revolution that intersected with the Spanish-American War: more than two months after the Aguinaldo declared Independence "under the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation" [the Bald Eagle nation], the US vilely arranged the infamous August 1898 Mock Battle of Manila that made it appear that it was the Americans instead of the Filipinos that expelled the Spaniards, and in February of the following year, secretly instigated hostilities to spark the Fil-Am War (1899-1914), USA's first war of invasion where an estimated hundreds of thousands to 1.5 million Filipino freedom-fighters and civilians perished either from direct killing/torture or from famine, sickness, or from the asperity of reconcentration, scorched earth, and other horrific war tactics of the enemy Americans.

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Monday, July 30, 2012


1934 - During the imperialist American Period, Claro M.  Recto is elected president of the Constitutional Convention  tasked with framing what would be called the 1935 Constitution of colonial Philippines; Recto, an outspoken Filipino nationalist and critic of the United States Military Bases, will die in Rome in 1960  due to a mysterious heart attack suspected to be a work of the Bald Eagle's Central Intelligence Agency based on an earlier CIA plan to assassinate him with a vial of poison, his having no known heart ailment, and  the US agency's record of playing 'holed condom' electoral dirty tricks on the solon during his presidential bid in the 1957 presidential elections.  

1896 - Filipino reformist, patriot and  polymath Jose Mercado Rizal receives a letter from  Gov.-Gen. Ramon Blanco permitting him to work as  physician for the Spanish Army in Cuba, 

1601 - Antonio de Morga, Spanish colonial judge for the  Philippine Islands during the colonial rule of Spin  writes King Philip II about his services in equipping and supplying and leading the naval battle with Dutch corsairs who have been preying on shipping that enter Manila harbor.

Sunday, July 29, 2012


1578 - Francesco de Sande, the third Spanish colonial  governor of the Philippines, writes King Philip II a brief  report about his March-May 1578 expedition from Manila to  the southern island of Borneo in the bid to secure the submission of the natives to the Spanish crown; de Sande,  who earlier established the southern Luzon city of Nueva Caceres, enabling the arrival of the first Franciscan priests  in 1577 in the Southeast Asian archipelago, also requests the king for a reward and promotion for his victorious campaign against the early native Muslims as a result of which the Bornean sultan became submissive to Spain; earlier in 1521, Spain "discovered" [translation: first learned about] the islands of what they would later call the Southeast Asian archipelago following Spain's "discovery" [again, read: first learned about] what they will later name s the Philippine islands (Islas de San Lazaro) following the arrival of the ill-fated  expedition of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 who was killed by chieftain Lapu-Lapu and some 22 years later, the fourth Spanish colonial expedition, this time headed by  Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, reached Baganga Bay, Davao Oriental in the island of Mindanao, Philippine archipelago; another expedition  in 1559 marked the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines when King Philip II sent a mission to conquer said islands that would later be named after him; earlier, the Spanish monarchy was convinced  that the Philippine islands formed part of the Spanish zone under the so-called Treaty of Tordesillas demarcation, leading to the full decision to colonize the islands and the native people.

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Saturday, July 28, 2012


Imperialist American Civil Gov.-Gen William Forbes (right, back row)

1909 - Ten years into the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the imperialist United States-installed colonial civil government of  Gov.-Gen. Cameron Forbes recommends the reconstruction  of Jose Protacio Rizal's house in Dapitan where the Filipino hero was  exiled during the Spanish colonial era;  Rizal would be an "American-sponsored" figure to be made  as the Philippines' "national hero" by the Bald Eagle colonial government, chosen over the 'too radical' Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Supremo of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government fighting the Spanish rule, the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), and the 'Sublime Paralytic' Apolinario Mabini y Maranan who will be considered by the imperialists as 'unregenerate;'

 -- 54 years earlier, on July 28, 1855, Juan B. Marcaido is granted a gold medal for  his efforts and studies on the method of banana fiber  extraction by the Economics Society of Friends of the Country; on July 28, 1963, 24 Philippine Boy Scouts and  Scouter delegates to the 11th Boys Scout World Jamboree in  Marathon, Greece, perish in a airplane crash in the Arabian  Sea.

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Friday, July 27, 2012


1645 - Native Muslims attack the Spanish garrison with help from a Dutch squadron that arrives at Jolo from  Batavia (North Jakarta) during Spain's colonial rule  of the Philippines; the Filipino-Spanish troops under  Commander Esteban Ugalde will resist and finally force  the withdrawal of the squadron after three days of  combat in what would be  one of the few unsuccessful  attempts of the Dutch to expel the Spaniards from the  Philippine islands; the contexts are Spain's tenuous hold on Mindanao and  the so-called 80 Years War of  Netherlands' revolt and, subsequently, assertion of its  independence; Spain's colonization of the Southeast Asian islands began in the mid 1500s when King Philip II sent sent an expedition to conquer said archipelago in 1559 following earlier exploration missions including that led by Ferdinand Magellan who was killed by the native chieftain Lapu-Lapu and his forces in the island of Mactan.

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Thursday, July 26, 2012


Japanese occupies the US colony, the Philippines

1941 - Lt. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, military adviser to the colonial government of the imperialist United States in the Philippine Islands, dubbed the "Philippine Commonwealth," is placed in active service as commander of the newly created USAFFE (United States Armed Forces in the Far East) during World War II; some 100,000 Filipino soldiers whom MacArthur has trained in modern warfare will be inducted under his command; however, in five months' time, Bataan province, where MacArthur will run to his retreat, will fall during the Japanese's so-called December 1941-May 1942 Philippine Campaign, part of the early developments during the Pacific theatre of the Second World War, with Japan to be able to occupy the North American colony, the Philippines, until 1945; Japan will surrender to the Bald Eagle nation after its two cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki are horrifically attacked by the US with the world's first-ever atomic bombs.

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Wednesday, July 25, 2012


Hen. Santiago V. Alvarez
1872 - Santiago Alvarez y Virata, who would become one of the most valiant generals of  the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is born in Imus, Cavite to Gen.  Mariano Alvarez and Nocilasa Virata; he will become captain general and later, commander-in-chief, of the Magdiwang chapter of the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in Cavite; Alvarez will valiantly fight the Spaniards from the outbreak of the revolution in 1896 until 1897, and will be dubbed the Hero of the  Battle of Dalahican when he will engage the Spanish troops under Gen. Ramon  Blanco in the bloody 36-hour battle, successfully repulsing the enemy  forces;  Alvarez will heroically display excellent fighting skills with his father, Mariano Alvarez, and cousin, General Pascual Alvarez--both co-Magdiwang KKK leaders--liberating Noveleta from the Spaniards on August 31, 1896 and bravely winning various battles within Noveleta, specifically in the towns of Naic, Maragondon, Magallanes, Tanza, Alfonso, Silang, Imus, and Francisco de Malabon; however, during the United States invasion of the Philippines, Alvarez will become an American 'collaborator' of sorts owing to their refusal to join the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo who seized revolutionary leadership and ordered the execution-cum-assassination of  Katipunan Supreme President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro;  Alvarez would be appointed by  William Howard Taft as presiding officer of the imperialist civil government body, the so-called Great Council of Peace Commision in 1902, three years into the protracted and very bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Alvarez will author the book "The katipunan and the revolution: memoirs of a general," an invaluable source of information on the Philippine Revolution, the rift between the Magdiwang and Magdalo chapter, and the heroism and killing of Bonifacio under the hands of Aguinaldo's Magdalo faction.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012


Filipinos captured by American invaders

1898 - After having been led to believe through verbal promises by United States officials [the consuls in Singapore and Hong Kong, Admiral George Dewey and Gen. Thomas Anderson] that America is an ally, President Emilio F. Aguinaldo writes to Gen. Anderson of his people's expectations that while foreign powers have not yet acknowledged  the Philippine Republic, "the great North American nation, which  struggled first for its independence, and afterward for the  abolition of slavery and is now actually struggling for the  independence of Cuba, would look upon [Filipino assertion of  sovereignty] with greater benevolence than any other nation";  some three months back during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, intersecting with the Spanish-American War, the Bald Eagle nation, through Admiral Dewey, forged an alliance with the Filipinos, deceptively promising Aguinaldo that the U.S. will honor the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago; exactly a year later, on July 24, 1899, almost six months into the  bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Foreign Minister Apolinario Mabini y Maranan will optimistically write about  how "favorable public opinion (on Philippine independence) in America is steadily gaining ground to the detriment of the imperialist party."

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Monday, July 23, 2012


1864 - Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, the future "Brains of the Philippine  Revolution", key adviser,  and Foreign Minister of what would be the short-lived  Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, is born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas to Dionisia Maranan and  Inocencio  Mabini during the Spanish colonial rule;  acquiring paralysis later in adulthood, Mabini will be summoned to become an adviser of Aguinaldo who, by that time, had already seized revolutionary leadership from Generalissimo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro during the time of the Philippine Revolution against Spain; Mabini will be one of the few officials of the fledgling Philippine Republic that will for some time resist the pressure of swearing fealty to the imperialist United States of America during the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) ; it will be the second phase of the Philippine Revolution that Mabini will become a key Filipino figure--his counterpart during the initial phase of the Himagsikan led by Bonifacio,  co-founder and Supremo of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan,  will be Emilio Jacinto y Dizon, who will earn the title "Brains of the Katipunan; a few years before his death, Mabini will author his memoirs of the Philippine Revolution, including his account of Aguinaldo's "insubordination" to, and the tragic "crime" and "assassination" committed against Bonifacio.

1567 - Miguel  Lopez de Legaspi, the Spanish conquistador who forged a blood  compact  with the Filipino natives and deceived them into thinking that his people were friends, subsequently facilitating Spain's colonization of the Southeast Asian islands, reports to King Philip II about how Chinese  and Japanese come yearly to some islands in the archipelago, such  as Luzon and Mindoro, to trade silk, wool bells, iron, tin, porcelains, perfumes, colored cotton cloths and other  small wares in exchange for gold and wax.

Raw image credit: National Historical Institute