Saturday, March 31, 2012


Enemy United States forces occupy Malolos
 1899 - Malolos, the capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic, falls to the imperialist American forces led by General Arthur MacArthur more than two months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914), thus forcing President Emilio F. Aguinaldo to transfer the capital northwards to Tarlac; American's sickening sense of racial superiority would later be seen in accounts explaining United States' moves towards the invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago, including in the diary of Sgt. Hiram Harlow, an American soldier who sees action in several battles in Malolos, with his multiple referral to the Filipinos as "niggers"; the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) erupted on February 4, 1899 after the enemy U.S. forces deliberately instigated hostilities as part of the vile pre-arranged plan of enemy American President William McKinley to push the US Congress into approving the ridiculous Treaty of Paris that wherein Spain supposedly 'cedes' its former colony to the US even when Filipino revolutionaries led by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy already claimed de facto liberation and had even declared Philippine Independence and already defeated and expelled the colonial Spaniards, and established the Philippine Republic; Aguinaldo, who seized leadership of the Himagsikan and ordered the assassination-cum-execution of Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, was conned by Bald Eagle diplomatic and military officials, notably, Gen. Thomas Anderson and Commodore George Dewey, into cooperating with the Americans during the Spanish-American War that intersected with the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain; gullibly believing their verbal promises honor Philippine independence, Aguinaldo stupidly permitted American soldiers to freely enter, thus allowing the imperialist U.S. forces to position themselves for the infamous Mock Battle of Manila and the eventual invasion of the archipelago.

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Friday, March 30, 2012


1591 - During the Spanish colonial period, Governor Perez Dasmarinas issues an ordinance in the city of Manila, Philippines that forbids the native indios to wear silk and other fabrics from China supposedly because such it is detrimental to the general welfare and that of the city government; the ordinance has been prompted by agitation to either ban or restrict the importation of Chinese silk, as well as cotton, which were very popular because of its incredibly low prices, thus threatening the elimination of Peninsular silk in Spain and of draining gold and silver from the treasury; only a few decades earlier, Western colonization of the Southeast Asian archipelago began in 1565 when the Spaniards first established settlements in Cebu; the Philippine islands were first "discovered" [translation: first learned about]  by Spain following  the ill-fated 1521 expedition of Ferdinand Magellan who was killed by Mactan island chieftain Lapu-Lapu, and then followed up with several other expeditions, with the 1565 expedition by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi as signalling the beginning of the actual Spanish colonization of the Philippines.

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Thursday, March 29, 2012


1896 - The Supreme Council of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), the secret revolutionary movement in the Philippines aiming to overthrow Spanish colonial rule, decides to elevate Balangay Nagbangon, its branch in the town of Pasig, to the status of a Sangguniang Bayan (Sb.) and to create a new one under its jurisdiction, Balangay Pinaglabanan, with the newly elected officers of the two units immediately taking their oaths-of-office; "in about five months' time, the KKK will transform itself into a revolutionary government with its own officials and initially-mostly-spear-and-bolo-armed army headed by Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro and launch the Philippine Revolution against Spain; the fire of the Himagsikan that will begin in eight provinces will quickly spread to other areas of the Southeast Asian archipelago despite the state of martial law that Spanish Governor-General Blanco will issue;  years later, the United States Library of Congress will write that the KKK "insinuated itself into the community by setting up mutual aid societies and education for the poor [and by] 1896, the Katipunan had over 30,000 members and functioned at the national, provincial, and municipal levels.

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Wednesday, March 28, 2012


1907 - In accord with America's propaganda and imperialistic policy of falsely claiming that the Philippine-American War ("insurrection" daw) ended in 1902, Governor James F. Smith falsely certifies that since the publication of the Philippine Census in 1905, supposedly there have been an absence of serious disturbances of public order except those committed by 'outlaws and religious fanatics' and that the great mass of the Filipinos have been “law-abiding, peaceful and loyal to the United States”; decades later, even American historians will write that the war of resistance valiantly fought by Filipino patriots against the imperialist Bald Eagle invaders well continued on until 1915 [and in] years to come, Americans [will remain] divided over the nation’s actions and imperial ambitions; the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) exploded on February 4, 1899 after the enemy U.S. forces deliberately instigated hostilities as part of the vile scheme of Bald Eagle President William McKinley to "annex" [translation:invade] the Philippines by pushing the US Congress into approving the controversial Treaty of Paris wherein Spain supposedly 'cedes' its former colony to the emerging world power the US even when Filipino revolutionaries already declared independence, expelled the colonial Spaniards, and established the Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy; earlier in 1896, the Filipino freedom-fighters under Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro launched the Philippine Revolution against Spain and transformed the underground society Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK into a revolutionary government until Aguinaldo seized power and ordered the assassination-cum-execution the Supremo in 1897 before eventually forging the Biak-na-Bato truce with the Spaniards; during the so-called second phase of the Revolution that intersected with the Spanish-American War, Aguinaldo will cooperate with the US forces, accepting the verbal promises of Bald Eagle officials, particularly George Dewey, to honor Philippine independence, leading him to stupidly allow the free entry of American G.I.'s that, in turn, permitted the emerging enemy to position themselves for the eventual invasion of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation, the first constitutional democracy in Asia

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Tuesday, March 27, 2012


Then-Col. San Miguel conferring with
imperialist Col. Stotsenburg, Feb. 2, 1899
1903 - Gen. Luciano San Miguel y Saklolo, one of the most valiant, nationalistic, and greatest though underrated Filipino heroes and revolutionaries, dies fighting the imperialist American forces and traitorous mercenaries during the Battle of Koral-na-Bato in Antipolo, Rizal, four years into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the real last Philippine Republic general who chose to continue fighting the vile Bald Eagle invaders despite Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo's capture and prompt swearing of allegiance to the enemy flag, a dying San Miguel will manage to utter the glorious words of heroism: “To give up one’s life for the Motherland and her freedom – this alone, is true happiness and honor!; a Caviteno who joined the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-body Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in 1896, San Miguel was a bonafide man of the Supremo Andres C. Bonifacio under the Magdiwang KKK chapter;  he received the command of the northern provinces of Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Morong, Batangas, Laguna, and Manila as colonel during the Second Phase of the Revolution against Spain; during the Fil-Am War, he led military actions in central and western Luzon as general in the battles of 1899 and will revive the KKK in his command in Zambales; at the time of his death, he was the generalissimo in charge of overall field operations command of the Republic of Katagalugan, the anti-imperialist revolutionary body that took off from Bonifacio's 1896-1897 Katipunan, which San Miguel co-formed with Gen. Macario Sakay; similar to that of Bonifacio who died under the hands of his countrymen, Gen. San Miguel's heroic death in Rizal's Pugad-Babuy district was effected by the imperialist pawns, the Philippine Constabulary and mercenary Philippine Scouts forces that mostly consisted of traitorous, co-opted Filipinos; the (third)  Battle of Corral-na-Bato will later be regarded as the last great anti-imperialist-American battle in the Luzon but following San Miguel's death, a new phase of the guerrilla struggle of the Filipino freedom fighters in the Philippine's Luzon island will continue unabated for four more years with popular support. 

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Monday, March 26, 2012


Original Philippine Flag

1920 - During the American Occupation, the colonial Philippine Legislature passes Act No. 2928 adopting the Filipino flag of the so-called Malolos Republic as the official flag of the Government of the Philippine Islands to be flown next to the American flag;  through Act No. 1696, also known as the Flag Law  of 1907, the imperialist Bald Eagle authorities had outlawed the display or unfurling of Filipino flags, including that of the Malolos Republic and  flags, banners, emblems, and symbols  of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government that led the Philippine Revolution against Spain, which was a law that was earlier promulgated midway into the  protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

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Sunday, March 25, 2012


Filipino hero, Gen. Isabelo Abaya

1898 - Filipino revolutionary leader Federico Isabelo Abaya and his men capture Candon, Ilocos Sur from the colonial Spaniards, one year and seven months into the Philippine Revolution, with the Ilocanos establishing the "Republic of Candon," appointing Fernando Guirnalda as President and Abaya as general and commander-in-chief who will send  three columns to liberate as well  the neighboring towns to  north, east, and south although the Spaniards will retake Candon by sending shock troops within three days; Guirnalda will join up with the forces of the national government of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo in Pangasinan and will return with Philippine Republic forces the following year and in-between, Abaya will continue the revolutionary struggle through guerrilla warfare; Abaya, one of the organizers  of the underground-movement-turned-revolutionary-body  Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) in Ilokos, will not relent in his patriotic aspirations, continuing through the Filipino-American War (1899-1914), recruiting Igorots whom he will lead in the Battle of Caloocan during the initial battles of the anti-colonial struggle; Gen. Abaya will become a folk hero to the Ilokanos and will as well earn legendary status among the imperialist Bald Eagle forces, with his head being a coveted prize for the enemy Americans of the 33rd Infantry, along with their traitorous mercenaries;  Abaya will die a hero in 1900, either during a battle as recounted by his superior Villamor, or in captivity on May 3 as alleged by imperialist Gen. Arthur MacArthur, after the would-be-infamous Filipino traitor Januario Galut points out the former's hideout in Lidlidda, Ilocos Sur.

1898 -- on the very same day, the 74th Filipino regiment at the Cavite naval fort march out of the barracks, bringing arms and equipment with them as they join the revolutionaries; however, this day also sees the massacre by the enemy Spanish soldiers of many Visayan sailors in Camba St., Manila, a detestable development to be dubbed as the "Massacre of Calle Camba" and which will prompt former seminarian and fiery Leon Kilat to avenge his compatriots by inciting an uprising in Cebu a week later--burning the city's business section, looting the churches, and killing Spaniards including the friars.

Saturday, March 24, 2012


 1897 - Filipino revolutionary and patriot Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia reluctantly takes his oath of office in a clandestine ceremony after being elected the General-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army under a new body designed to replace the underground-movement-turned-revolutionary-body  Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) during the anomalous Tejeros Convention two days earlier, seven months into the Philippine Revolution against Spain; Ricarte has initially refused to take the oath because he believes the elections were marred by fraud and because he thinks he is not qualified to hold the job; the convention proved to be scandalous and was  declared invalid and fraudulent by Andres C. Bonifacio, the Supremo of the original revolutionary body, Katipunan; Bonifacio earlier agreed to chair the convention despite the fact that the Katipunan was already a revolutionary body in his patriotic bid to unite the warring Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the KKK in Cavite province, and despite prior reports that the Imus crowd in the province wanted only men from their pueblos to be elected and that pre-filled ballots carrying Magdalo names were distributed; Bonifacio ended up being insulted by Daniel Tirona who scandalously disrespects the balloting by questioning the Supremo's credentials and asking the crowd to elect another man in his place;  along with Ricarte, Emilio F. Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias take their oath in a ceremony kept hidden from the Magdiwang, with the controversial Tirona as one of the witnesses, and with Bonifacio not having been invited.

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Friday, March 23, 2012


1901 - Philippine President-on-the-run Emilio Aguinaldo is captured by imperialist American soldiers led by Frederick Funston through vile trickery wherein they pose as prisoners of the traitorous local Macabebe scouts in Palanan, Isabela nearly 2 years & 3 months into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); drawn up by Funston, the manner of Aguinaldo's capture, which would be condemned by the anti-Imperialists in America,  is marked by the forgery of the letter of  Gen. Urbano Lacuna after Filipino surrenderee and turncoat Cecilio Segismundo turned over crucial dispatches indicating Aguinaldo's whereabouts  and by the subsequent disguising of traitorous former  freedom fighter leaders and 78 Macabebes, members of the "Philippine scouts" [read: imperialist anti-Philippine Republic mercenaries] as Filipino replacement soldiers; instead of resisting or fighting to death the Bald Eagle forces as a way of sustaining the morale of his soldiers still valiantly fighting the new colonizing forces during the Philippine-American, Aguinaldo will become a cooperative US Prisoner of War and will swear allegiance to the enemy flag within only a several days from capture, even issuing on that same day a widely circulated proclamation wherein he calls upon his soldiers to accept imperialist-imposed peace and unite "around the glorious and sovereign banner of the United States"; in a few years, almost  all generals of Aguinaldo's republic would capitulate although the Fil-Am War will be continued until about 1914 by other freedom-fighting soldiers and Katipuneros/veterans of the 1896 Revolution; Aguinaldo will capitulate fully and will receive 300 hectares of choice friar lands that adjoin his Imus, Cavite home town.

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Thursday, March 22, 2012


1897 - The fraudulent and controversial Tejeros Convention elects the new officers of the Philippine revolutionary body, with Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, head of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) , the original secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government fighting the colonial Spaniards, being elected Interior Director and Emilio F. Aguinaldo, the President; the convention could possibly have ended peacefully had Daniel Tirona, months earlier accused by the Supremo of disseminating propagating poison letters against him, not objected to Bonifacio's election, supposedly on grounds of lack of qualification when he scandalously disrespected the results and insulting the Supremo by loudly shouting "Let us elect Mr. Jose del Rosario, the lawyer!"; prior to the election, Bonifacio had been warned by a Magdiwang officer, Diego Mojica, about Tirona's distribution of pre-filled ballots with Magdalo names in them; Bonifacio, who has been lured into Cavite so he can supposedly unite the Magdalo and Magdiwang KKK factions of the province, with the Magdiwang said to be accusing the former of wanting "to rule all and the entire Philippines"; Bonifacio, who also earlier learned of "the underhand work of some of the Imus crowd who had quietly spread the statement that it was not advisable that they be governed by men" from outside pueblos, will soon issue Acta de Tejeros declaring the corrupt elections invalid, but unfortunately, be caught by Aguinaldo's forces before reaching what has been speculated to be either Manila or Batangas that, according to the Supremo, "has organized a provincial government " placed under his orders; Aguinaldo's forces would charge the Supremo and his brothers with "sedition" and be found 'guilty' by a kangaroo court martial wherein the assigned defense lawyer himself condemned Bonifacio; the Tejeros Convention would be later be condemned as a coup and counterrevolution by more progressive historians.

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Wednesday, March 21, 2012


Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

1935 - Hiroshi Tamura, a major in the Japanese Imperial Army stationed in Taiwan, writes former revolutionary leader and ex-Philippine President General Aguinaldo about his strong sentiments against imperialist American presence in the Southeast Asian Archipelago; the Bald Eagle nation invaded the Philippines at the turn of the century, conning Aguinaldo by making him believe that the United States was a ally against colonial Spain, prompting the former leader to stupidly permit the free entry of American forces into the islands, thus allowing the vile Americans to position themselves for the Mock Battle of Manila and eventual invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago during the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) ; six 1/2 years later, Japan will challenge American colonial presence in Asia-Pacific during World War II, invading the Philippines and adding the islands to its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, envisioned to be a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers".

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Tuesday, March 20, 2012


1900 - Filipino Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundok orders the execution of all traitorous local, civil and barrio officials who either assist the enemy Americans or fail to report to the nearest guerrilla commander the movements and plans of the imperialist troops, one year and one month into the bloody and protracted during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Tinio's order is an apparent response to the enemy United States forces' use of Philippine Scouts [read: Filipino mercenary traitors], making traitors out of locals to assist them in subjugating the Southeast Asian archipelago; one of the ablest and youngest generals of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Tinio was a veteran of the rather recently and controversially concluded Revolution against Spain, being part responsible for the capture of San Isidro and the proclamation of Nueva Ecija's independence from Spanish hold and the subjugation of the Ilokano's resistance to the Revolution; Tinio's Brigade would be responsible for holding open the line of northward withdrawal of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo  who was hotly pursued by the imperialist Americans; Tinio had recently shifted military strategy in fighting the enemy by dividing and organizing his brigade into columna volantes or guerrilla ambush units posted along the road and other strategic sites, with the local citizenry serving as polistas and vigilant spies against the movement of the Bald Eagle forces; while the strategy would proved rather successful, Tinio would eventually surrender after American deserter John Allane, who returned to the fold of the invaders, gave sensitive information about his brigade and after Aguinaldo's capture and prompt swearing of fealty to the imperialist enemy flag about year later.

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Monday, March 19, 2012


Gabriela Silang, first Filipina female freedom-fighter

1731 - Maria Josefa Gabriela Cari-o Silang, Filipina patriot who will lead a rebellion against the Spanish colonizers, is born to an Ilocano peasant and an Itneg househelp from Abra in Sta. Caniogan, Ilocos Sur; better known as Gabriela Silang, she will take over leadership of rebel group of her husband, Diego Silang, in the Ilocos province and will thus become the first woman freedom fighting rebel leader of the Philippines; Diego Silang, who will launch the so-called Ilocano revolt to attempt to liberate his province from the onerously high taxes and forced labor imposed by the Spanish colonial authorities and will proclaim the independence of his people in December 1762, will soon be treacherously killed; Gabriela will courageously take up the patriotic cause of his fallen husband, lead his rebel group, and even recruited tribal freedom fighters from his mother's side, the Itnegs; she will lead her rebellious army in its attacks against the garrisons of the enemy colonizers on the coastal town but would be badly beaten in their attack on Vigan in the first week of September 1763; the heroine and her loyal soldiers would soon be captured, and Gabriela publicly hanged by the heartless Spaniards on the 20th of the same month.

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Sunday, March 18, 2012


Gen. Ananias Diokno y Noblejas
1901 - Filipino soldiers fighters led by General Ananias Diokno y Noblejas are ambushed while trying to fight off the invading imperialist American  forces in the island of Panay, two years into the protracted and bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914); under the general command of Gen. Martin Delgado y Bermejo, the Panay forces have been  initially operating independently of the Philippine Republic of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo during the Revolution against Spain although Aguinaldo would later send Tagalog forces under the command of Gen. Diokno and Gen. Leandro Fullon y Locson months before the onset of the Fil-Am War; said to have been sent to unify the Visayan revolutionaries and help defeat the Spaniards, Gen. Diokno had organized  the command of Batallion Maluya and presented successful battles against the Spaniards and, together with the forces of Delgado and Fullon Gen. Diokno, presented strong resistance against the vile invading Americans for a time; Gen. Diokno, who has been compelled to conduct a guerrilla war with a few men left in his control following the February 2 surrender of Gen. Delgado to enemy Bald Eagle Gen. Robert P. Hughes, will be wounded and captured but later will patriotically refuse the American co-optation offer to occupy the directorship of the Bureau of Agriculture.

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Saturday, March 17, 2012


Malolos Church, Presidential Residence, Philippine Republic
1899 -  A member of a prominent Manila family visits Malolos, capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic, to try to convince President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy on the futility of further resistance against imperialist American forces some six weeks into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914);  after hearing the arguments of the prominent Manileno, Aguinaldo orders his immediate execution, although two years later, the latter would himself swear allegiance to the enemy American flag within only several days of his treacherous capture by the Bald Eagle forces; the imperialist United States military forces fired the first shots of the Phil-Am War on February 4, 1899 at Sta. Ana, Manila as a deliberate provocation secretly planned by the William McKinley administration in the vile scheme to blame it on the Filipinos and influence the U.S. Senate into ratifying the Treaty of Paris and, thus, fund the military operations to invade the Philippines.

1900 - Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic under siege from imperialist American invaders, reads aloud an account of  Lt. Col. Juan Villamor's military success in capturing 200 Americans with their rifles in the Pial settlement of Abra Province; the proud account of Aguinaldo read this morning at Libuagan camp in Kalinga comes a year and a month into the Filipino-American War (1899-1914); the emerging world power, the United States, decided to "annex" [translation: invade] the fledgling Philippine Republic that declared itself liberated from Spain in June 1898, with the administration of Bald Eagle President William McKinley secretly ordering regimental commanders to bring about conflict in the bid to trick the U.S. Senate into approving  the controversial Treaty of Paris and effect funding for military operations to pursue the imperialist policy for America's overseas expansion; some two years earlier during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, American military and diplomatic officials led by Admiral George Dewey conned then revolutionary leader Aguinaldo into an 'alliance'  with the U.S. forces in fighting Spain during the intersecting Spanish-American War by making verbal promises that the Bald Eagle nation would honor Filipino independence.

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Friday, March 16, 2012


1705 - As a sign of amity, Sultan Shahabud-Din of Jolo in the Philippine archipelago informs Spanish colonial Gov.-Gen. Domigo Zalbalburu de Echevarri through a letter that he has decided to "cede" to the Spanish Crown his possessions on Paragua island  (future Palawan), including the neighboring Lauag isle (future Balabac); the cession of Lauag isle would later be secured through the Sultan of Brunei by Juan Moralez de Valenzuela, an envoy who also worked for former Governor Juan Vargas de Hurtado (1678-1684); Gov. Zalhaxbubu's reign over the Spanish colony, the Philippines, would be marked by the construction of royal storehouses and galleons, repair of Gavite, reconstruction of the royal power house of Malate and flourishing commerce.

1521 - Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese-born explorer for the Spanish crown, sights the archipelago of San Lazaro, what will later be called the Philippines, and names two islands--Yunagan and Suluan, where they anchor; his ship will later successively land at the islands of Gada, Seilani, and Mazava, and thereafter either anchor at or pass by Matan(=Mactan), Subu(=Cebu), Baibai(=Baybay); the colonial explorers will leave Subu, described as having gold and ginger and then pass by the island of Panilongo, which a crew's diary will describe as being inhabited by blacks, before anchoring at Bohol; Magellan's exploration will eventually lead to Spain's colonization of the Southeast Asian archipelago for over 300 years.

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Thursday, March 15, 2012


1899 - Gen. Mariano C. Trias submits to Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, the report showing that the imperialist Americans started the first shots of the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and that, moreover, the initial February 4 attack had been premeditated;  historians would later learn that the United States Congress decided to go to war based on a fraudulent claim that Filipinos began attacking American soldiers in Manila,as part of the vile “prearranged plan” by the U.S. military under Bald Eagle President William McKinley to precipitate the Philippine-American War immediately after an incident has been provoked; racist U.S. soldier Pvt. William Grayson fired  the first shots at Filipino soldiers trying to cross Sta. Ana bridge as part of the  secret orders made by regimental commanders some two days earlier to bring about conflict; Bald Eagle President William McKinley schemed to trick the U.S. Senate to approve  the Treaty of Paris and, thus, secure funding for military operations to annex the Philippines as part of the imperialist policy for America's overseas expansion.

1900 - Colonial officials at Manila, Philippines try to comply with the controversial 1898 Treaty of Paris forged between the imperialist United States and Spain, with the Spaniards leaving the Southeast Asian archipelago and being urged to bring their Filipina wives with them; the compliance with the Treaty which supposedly cedes the Philippines for $20 million dollars--despite the fact that the Filipino revolutionaries had already declared independence after virtually wresting control of the archipelago from the Spaniards--marks the end of the over 300 years of Spain's presence in (and colonization of) the Philippines; occurring a year and a month into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914), the Treaty of Paris that ridiculously tackles  supposed Spain's sale/ceding of a territory it no longer owns has met severe criticism from the Filipinos, including Gen. Antonio N. Luna who early on lambasted the paradox of American claims of democracy and the inhumanity allowed by international law:

People are not to be bought and sold like horses and houses. If the aim has been to abolish the traffic in Negroes because it meant the sale of persons, why is there still maintained [in international law] the sale of countries with inhabitants free to be unwilling to form part of a[nother] nation?

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Wednesday, March 14, 2012


1899 - Imperialist United States Gen. Elwell Otis reports to the Adjutant-General in Washington that Gen. Lloyd Wheaton has attacked a large force of “the enemy,” referring to the freedom-fighting Filipinos one month into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the report that mentions the heavy losses were inflicted on the side Filipinos comes a day after the Battle of Guadalupe Church wherein invading Bald Eagle forces including those from the 51st Iowa Infantry, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and Washington volunteers routed the poorly armed Filipinos; with other dispatches to Washington stating that “fierce opposition” was offered by the natives, Major Grant is ordered to take one of the gunboats and destroy all the Filipino vessels in Laguna de Bay; the enemy Americans' strategy mapped out by Otis, who thinks resistance is concentrated in the southern Luzon provinces, consists of severing the supply line of Filipinos north of Manila and then aiming to capture Malolos, the proclaimed capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic.

1947 - The controversial RP-US Military Bases Agreement (MBA) that grants American access to 22 military, naval, and air bases in the Philippines is signed by Philippine President Manuel A. Roxas and United States Ambassador Paul V. McNutt at Malacanang some eight months after the imperialist Bald Eagle nation granted "independence" to its Southeast Asian colony; supposedly forged for the mutual defense of the two countries, the agreement would be decried by nationalists as both a symbol and actual tool of American neo-colonial hold on Filipinos; with the agreement coming 48 years after the Americans formally began the invasion of the then fledgling Philippine Republic by deliberately instigating hostilities, firing the first shots of the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914),  the MBA is also criticized for having been approved only as an international executive agreement on the part of the American instead of being ratified by the U.S. legislature as the Philippine side has done, suggesting the status of international legal inequality and continued subservience of the Filipinos to the imperialist Americans.

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Tuesday, March 13, 2012


Imperialist U.S. gunboat Laguna de Bay

1899 - Some 200 Filipino freedom fighters are killed by imperialist American forces led by Bald Eagle Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton during the Battle of Guadalupe Church one year and one month into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the battle taken part in by the enemy United States forces that include the 51st Iowa Infantry, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment led by Col. Owen Summers, and  Washington volunteers in the Pedro Macati area (later  to be known as Makati City) would also see the terrible destruction of the convent, with official US report only listing 3 Americans killed and 26 wounded; the  U.S. gunboat Laguna de Bay--purchased from a Spanish firm and armored by Utah Volunteer Light Artillery Capt. Frank A. Grant-- takes part in the invasion operations, bombarding the convent with eight guns mounted upon her; the Filipino freedom fighters are strongly entrenched near the Pasig river at the Guadalupe Church, such that the invading Americans plan to hold the left of their long line of invading troops "facing this district stationary until the right swung around on the flank of this position" at which moment the pivot should charge with the Laguna de Bay as support. 

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Monday, March 12, 2012


Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc

1900 - Filipino military leader Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc instructs commanders of the flying columns under his jurisdiction to intensify their guerrilla operations against enemy American forces; the youngest general of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Tinio has proved to be one of the most efficient surviving Filipino military leaders during the guerrilla warfare phase of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), having turned the whole Ilocos region and its population into an espionage network marked by a warning system that apprises the Filipino freedom fighters of approaching imperialist forces; earlier, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Tinio has won a number of skirmishes against the Spaniards, possibly paving the way for his appointment as Brigadier General during the formation of “Gobierno Departamental de las Siete Provincias en el Centro de Luzon"; Tinio, unfortunately, will surrender and pledge allegiance to the imperialist United States flag on May 1, 1901, soon after President Emilio F. Aguinaldo's capture and prompt decision to swear loyalty to the Bald Eagle invaders; in line with the pale-skinned invaders' policy of co-optation, his surrender and allegiance will be rewarded, with Tinio serving as Nueva Ecija governor and, later, as the first director of the colonial Bureau of Labor.

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Sunday, March 11, 2012


1947 - Despite the granting of "independence" to the Philippines, the Parity Rights amendment to the 1935 Constitution is submitted for a plebiscite and ratified, ridiculously giving American citizens equal rights as Filipinos to exploit the natural resources of the Southeast Asian country; in exchange for post-World War II aid, the administration of President Manuel Roxas had actively campaigned for the ratification of Parity Rights in what has been described as "persuasive harangue" and which will merit him a foiled assassination attempt by a disgruntled barber;  Roxas is said to have employed foul measures to ensure vote for parity, including asking government employees and military personnel, among others, to persuade Filipinos to vote for parity, denying poll watching job to teachers who refused to vote for parity, even deliberately reducing the voting population by printing referendum ballots only in English and Spanish,  moving polling booths out of areas where parity opponents were strong, and also conspiring against duly elected Leftist members of Congress;  the archipelagic nation became a colony of the imperialist United States at the turn of the century as the fledgling Philippine Republic, after virtually gaining independence from Spain, succumbed to the might of the enemy Bald Eagle nation during the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

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Saturday, March 10, 2012


1892 - The masonic lodge Nilad, established by future Filipino patriots Pedro Serrano Laktaw and Antonio Luna y Novicio, is recognized and given the number 144 by the Gran Oriente Espanol, the Spanish mother lodge; although freemasonry was introduced in the Philippines back in 1856, freemasonry with native elements and participation began only when Filipino intellectuals in foreign countries decided to organize masonic lodges in the Southeast Asian nation as a way to help address the continued persecution and injustices committed by Spanish friars against Filipinos; aiming to propagate the Masonic principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, propagandists and patriots Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Jose Rizal thought of organizing Philippine Masonry, commissioning  Luna and Laktaw for the task, with the Nilad Lodge eventually being constituted in January 1891; freemasonry will play an important role in the life of Filipinos as a number of its members will figure in the agitation for Philippine Independence, including Andres Bonifacio y de Castro who will co-found the secret society Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) and eventually lead the first phase of the  Philippine Revolution against Spain.

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Friday, March 9, 2012


1900 - Detachment commanders of the Filipino forces are informed by Second Zone Secretary Potenciano Luna that Capt. Pedro Cadurales and several others had been killed, including patriotic soldiers who were shot after being captured by the enemy forces of the imperialist United States; writing in a circular a year and a month into bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Luna also cautions the Filipino soldiers to be wary of infiltrators and to "Take care of our guns, bury them under the earth so nobody shall know about it, except the officer and the sergeant"; the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War began thirteen months earlier when the Bald Eagle forces deliberately provoked hostilities as part of the vile plan secretly ordered by the administration of Bald Eagle President William McKinley in his bid to push the American Congress into approving the ridiculous December 1898 Treaty of Paris wherein Spain supposedly "cedes" Philippines--its colony that valiantly fought for its independence--to the emerging superpower United States.

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Thursday, March 8, 2012


KKK document signed by  Bonifacio

1896 - The Supreme Council of the Philippine secret   society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), rules that Balangay Mahiganti, a KKK branch in Ermita, Manila, be elevated to the status of a Sangguniang Bayan (Sb.); Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, as the Katipunan's Supreme President, discusses the  newly elected officers' duties, subsequently explaining why the Katipunan's Supreme Assembly has decided to require all KKK sections to remit fees paid by new members and those promoted to a higher grade to the Supreme Council; the decision comes less than six months before the Katipunan transforms itself into a revolutionary government and prematurely launches the valiant Philippine Revolution against Spain under the leadership of Bonifacio following discovery of the society's existence by the colonial authorities; the KKK was founded by Bonifacio, et al., in July 1892 after patriot and reformist Jose P. Rizal was ordered arrested by the hated Spanish authorities.

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Wednesday, March 7, 2012


American-sponsored Philippine Congress, circa 1916

1919 - The American-sponsored Philippine Legislature passes a Declaration of Purposes that officially spells out the purported position of the Filipinos on the vital issue of the "Philippine question"--the grant of independence by the imperialist United States; the Declaration come after some five years after the Filipino freedom fighters have been completely subdued and the last shots of the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) fired; earlier in 1916, the Jones Act was passed by the United States Congress, providing for the recognition of Philippine independence supposedly after Filipinos would have been able to establish a stable government; the Senate and the Lower House would be established and control over most of the executive departments be given to the Filipinos, with the notable exception of the important Education portfolio; the Bald Eagle nation stole the Southeast Asian nation's virtual independence during the turn of the century during a lull in the Philippine Revolution against Spain when it conned revolutionary leader Emilio F. Aguinaldo into helping fight the Spaniards during the intersecting Spanish-American War, all the while making verbal promises to honor the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago, only to annex it and then secretly provoke war in February 1899 against what was then the fledgling Philippine Republic.

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Tuesday, March 6, 2012


Imperialist Taft Commission

1901 - Apolinario M. Mabini, Prime Minister of the fledgling Philippine Republic under siege by imperialist American forces, informs President Emilio F. Aguinaldo of William H. Taft's reply that the United States could not recognize Philippine independence, two years and one month into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); in reaction, Aguinaldo declares his continued pursuit of independence and urges peace within that context; the reply of Taft, head of the Philippine Commission [translation: imperialist commission] has revealed to the Filipinos that the Taft Commission is aimed at consolidating American sovereignty and not honoring the independence of Filipinos in any way; earlier, in November 1900 following his August conference with Taft, Mabini communicated to Aguinaldo his thoughts about the enemy Americans' adamant refusal to recognize Philippine independence; Bald Eagle President William Mckinley's policy to forcibly annex the Southeast Asian archipelago and instigate the Fil-Am War has been criticized by the more honorable Americans, including the members of the Anti-Imperialist League; less than two years earlier, the Filipino leader agreed to cooperate with Admiral George Dewey in fighting Spain based on the verbal promises of the latter and other American officials in the Manila/Southeast Asia that the U.S. will honor Philippine Independence, with Aguinaldo later stupidly allowing the free entry of G.I.s into the archipelago.

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