Saturday, July 31, 2010


Colonial body Philippine Assembly, imperialist US Occupation 
1907 - As the bloody Philippine-American War  persists in certain parts of the Southeast Asian  archipelago, elections are held for the Philippine Assembly,  the colonial legislative body set up during the  imperialist United States Occupation, with Sergio S. Osmena's (pro-immediate independence) Nacionalista Party capturing  majority of the 80 seats representing 80 districts;  only  less than 1.5% of the Filipinos were able to  vote their representatives to the Assembly, which  was effectively the lower house to the appointive,  all-American Philippine Commission, because of the  severe qualification requirements (real estate ownership worth at least P500; able to read and  write; and could speak in Spanish or English)

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Friday, July 30, 2010


Filipino Nationalist Claro M. Recto

1934 - During the imperialist American Period, Claro M.  Recto is elected president of the Constitutional Convention  tasked with framing what would be called the 1935 Constitution of colonial Philippines; Recto, an outspoken nationalist and critic of the United States Military Bases, will die in Rome in 1960 supposedly due to heart attack but which is suspected to be a work of the Central Intelligence Agency based on an earlier CIA plan to assassinate him with a vial of poison, his having no known heart ailment, and  the US agency's record of playing 'holed condom' electoral dirty tricks on the solon during his presidential bid in the 1957 presidential elections.  

1896 - Filipino reformist, patriot and  polymath Jose Mercado Rizal receives a letter from  Gov.-Gen. Ramon Blanco permitting him to work as  physician for the Spanish Army in Cuba, 

1601 - Antonio de Morga, Spanish colonial judge for the  Philippine Islands writes King Philip II about his services in equipping and supplying and leading the naval battle with Dutch corsairs who have been preying on shipping that enter Manila harbor.

Thursday, July 29, 2010


1578 - Francesco de Sande, the third Spanish colonial  governor of the Philippines, writes King Philip II a brief  report about his March-May 1578 expedition from Manila to  the southern island of Borneo in the bid to secure the submission of the natives to the Spanish crown; de Sande,  who earlier established the southern Luzon city of Nueva  Caceres, enabling the arrival of the first Franciscan priests  in 1577, also requests the king for a reward and promotion for his victorious campaign against the early Muslim natives as a result of which the Bornean sultan became submissive to Spain. 

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Wednesday, July 28, 2010


Imperialist Civil Gov.-Gen William Forbes (right, back row)
1909 - Ten years into the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War, the imperialist United States-installed colonial civil government of  Gov.-Gen. Cameron Forbes recommends the reconstruction  of Jose Rizal's house in Dapitan where the Filipino hero was  exiled during the Spanish colonial era; 54 years earlier, on  July 28, 1855, Juan B. Marcaido is granted a gold medal for  his efforts and studies on the method of banana fiber  extraction by the Economics Society of Friends of the  Country; on July 28, 1963, 24 Philippine Boy Scouts and  Scouter delegates to the 11th Boys Scout World Jamboree in  Marathon, Greece, perish in a airplane crash in the Arabian  Sea.

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Tuesday, July 27, 2010


1645 - Native Muslims attack the Spanish garrison with help from a Dutch squadron that arrives at Jolo from  Batavia (North Jakarta) during the Spanish colonial rule  of the Philippines; the Filipino-Spanish troops under  Commander Esteban Ugalde will resist and finally force  the withdrawal of the squadron after three days of  combat in what would be just one of the few unsuccessful  attempts of the Dutch to expel the Spaniards from the  Philippines; the contexts are Spain's tenous hold on Mindanao and is the so-called 80 Years War of  Netherlands' revolt and, subsequently, assertion of its  independence.

Monday, July 26, 2010


Japanese occupies the US colony, the Philippines

1941 - Lt. Gen. Douglas McArthur, military adviser to the United States colonial government in the Philippine Islands dubbed the "Philippine Commonwealth," is placed in active service as commander of the newly created USAFFE (United States Armed Forces in the Far East) during World War II; some 100,000 Filipino soldiers whom MacArthur has trained in modern warfare will be inducted under his command; however, in five months' time, Bataan province, where McArthur will run to his retreat, will fall and Japan will be able to occupy the US colony, the Philippines, until 1945.

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Sunday, July 25, 2010


Gen. Santiago Alvarez

1872 - Santiago Alvarez, who would become one of the most valiant generals of  the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is born in Imus, Cavite to Gen.  Mariano Alvarez and Nocilasa Virata; Alvarez will be dubbed the Hero of the  Battle of Dalahican when he engaged the Spanish troops under Gen. Ramon  Blanco in the bloody 36-hour battle, successfully repulsing the enemy  forces; however, during the United States invasion of the Philippines, Alvarez will become an American 'collaborator' of sorts, to be appointed by  William Howard Taft as presiding officer of the imperialist civil government body, the so-called Great Council of Peace Commision in 1902, three years into the protracted and very bloody Philippine-American War.

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Saturday, July 24, 2010


Filipinos captured by American invaders
1898 - After being led to believe through verbal promises by United States officials [the consuls in Singapore and Hong Kong, Admiral George Dewey and Gen. Thomas Anderson] that America is an  ally, President Emilio Aguinaldo writes to Gen. Anderson of his people's expectations that while foreign powers have not yet acknowledged  the Philipppine Republic, "the great North American nation, which  struggled first for its independence, and afterward for the  abolition of slavery and is now actually struggling for the  independence of Cuba, would look upon [Filipino assertion of  sovereignty] with greater benevolence than any other nation";  exactly a year later, on July 24, 1899, almost six months into the  bloody Philppine-American War, Foreign Minister Apolinario  Mabini will optimistically write about  how "favorable public opinion (on Philippine independence) in America is steadily gaining ground to the detriment of the imperialist party."

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Friday, July 23, 2010


1864 - Apolinario Mabini, the future "Brains of the Philippine   Revolution" and Foreign Minister of what would be the short-lived  Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, is born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas to Dionisia Maranan and  Inocencio  Mabini during the Spanish colonial rule;  297 years earlier, Miguel  Lopez de Legaspi, the Spanish conquistador who forged a blood  compact  with the natives and deceived them into thinking that his people were friends, reports to King Philip II about how Chinese  and Japanese come yearly to some islands in the archipelago, such  as Luzon and Mindoro, to trade silk, wool bells, iron, tin, porcelains, perfumes, colored cotton cloths and other  small wares in exchange for gold and wax.

Image credit: National Historical Institute

Thursday, July 22, 2010


Filipino soldiers resisting imperialist United States invasion 
1899 - One and one-half years into the Philippine-American War and 25 months after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy declared Philippine Independence from colonial Spain, gullibly invoking "the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," that was supposedly the United States of America, Aguinaldo will create an Intelligence Office in Manila to collect all  available data about the invading enemy US forces for  the information use of the Philippine Army and Philippine committees abroad; exactly a year later, on July 22, 1900,  Aguinaldo will issue a proclamation declaring all Filipinos who  attend the "peace" festivals organized by the imperialist  Americans are traitors to motherland. 

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Wednesday, July 21, 2010


Felipe Agoncillo
1898 - Felipe Agoncillo, future Minister Plenipotentiary of the  fledgling Philippine Republic, writes Apolinario Mabini, key adviser  of President Emilio Aguinaldo, expressing his apprehensions over  the supposed "alliance" with the Americans in apparent reference  to Aguinaldo's (unofficial and gullible) arrangement with certain United States officials to cooperate in the war against Spain and in return, America is supposed to honor the independence of the  Filipino nation; as will later be revealed, Admiral George Dewey,  Consul-General in Singapore E. Spencer Pratt; Consul General in  Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman, and Gen. Thomas Anderson have  deceived Aguinaldo, what with the US later invading the  Philippines come February 1899; Mabini will later write in his  memoirs that  "Mr. Aguinaldo had accepted [the verbal promises]  because he ardently desired to return to the islands, fearful that other influential Filipinos should (rob him of glory and) reach an  understanding with the Americans in the name of the people."

Tuesday, July 20, 2010


William Rufus Day
1898 - Five weeks after the Filipinos declared Philippine  independence during the Revolution against Spain, United States  Assistant Secretary of State William Rufus Day writes a letter supposedly  rebuking American Consul-General E. Spencer Pratt in Singapore  for "undiplomatically" allowing Philippine President General  Aguinaldo to believe that the U.S. Government would recognize  the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago after Spain  is defeated and on condition that the Filipinos help the US  in the Spanish-American War; truth is, days or weeks earlier, a  number of other American officials, including Gen. Thomas Anderson,  Consul General in Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman, and even  Admiral George Dewey took turns deceiving Aguinaldo into thinking the US will honor Philipine Independence  (only 16 days  earlier, Gen. Anderson Day wrote Aguinaldo to ask him to cooperate  with the United States in the war against Spain, categorically  stating that Americans are sympathetic  with the people of the  Philippine Islands); the apparent deception would lead Aguinaldo to stupidly order the Filipino forces "not to interfere" and freely allow the American forces to position themselves for the eventual US invasion of the Philippines.

Monday, July 19, 2010


Bust of Gen. Simon de Anda on the wall of Santa Cruz Church

1770 - General Simon de Anda assumes the position of  governor-general of the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands,  replacing Governor Jose RaĆ³n; during his administration, he  informs the King of Spain of complaints made against the abuses  of the friars and officials against the natives; successly opposes the King's November 9, 1774 decree secularizing curacies held by  the regulars; repairs the walls of Manila; shortly embarks on the  building of several war vessels; some eight years earlier, Anda  was responsible for organizing a new Spanish base in Bacolor,  Pampanga during the period of British occupation of Manila.

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Sunday, July 18, 2010


Spanish military map of the Philippines
1898 - Beleaguered Spanish troops led by Lieutenant Commander  Juan Lalat surrender to the Filipino revolutionary forces under  Commander Vicente Quesada in Aringay, La Union  more than a  month after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Independence of  the Philippines; the Spaniards have been entrenched in the convent  of this town following a sustained combat between the opposing  forces as the Filipinos forces prevailed, they were forced to capitulate to Quesada, the province's revolutionary governor who  treats them with all humanitarian considerations.

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Saturday, July 17, 2010


Early Chinese Rice Trader in the Philippines

1755 - Governor Manuel de Arandia reports that all non-Christian Chinese have been expelled from the Spanish colony of the Philippines, to be readmitted in the future only on account of trading purposes; 76 years earlier, Spanish governor for the Southeast Asian colony, Juan de Vargas, issued a royal cedula compelling all local unmarried Chinese, whether Catholic Christians or unbaptized, to live at the Parian while the married ones were to remain in Binondo, Manila.

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Friday, July 16, 2010


Gov.-Gen. Claveria
1844 - Narciso Claveria y Zaldua becomes governor-general of the  Philippines during the Spanish colonial rule; his administration will  be responsible for correcting the Philippine calendar; establishing the Sociedad de Recreo (Recreation Association);  the founding of papers such as Diario de Manila and La Esperanza; constructing a military library; the purchase of the first steam  war-vessel  for the Southeast Asian colony; and issuing a decree obligating the  natives to adopt Spanish surnames from a catalogue (Catalogo de Apellidos) for the purpose of easier taxation and identification, exempting  only pre-Spanish royalty and Chinese with pre-existing surnames.

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Thursday, July 15, 2010


Rey Felipe II de Espana
(King Philip II of Spain)

1589 - A royal fiscal in colonial Philippines, Gaspar de Ayala, writes Spanish King Felipe II a detailed report on matters concerning colonial administration in the Southeast Asian  archipelago and, as well, advises the king to construct ships and  fragata, which should be more profitable than galleys; de Ayala's  report also include the inadequate Chinese trade; the  encomiendas of Dona Maria de Miranda; the conspiracy against  Spaniards; the rebellion in Cagayan; sequestration of illegal  Japanese ship; the conflict between the royal officials and the  bishop; the conflict between the Dominicans and Augustinians;  the need for more religious instructions; the lack of funds in the  city hospital; the need for more soldiers, funds, and ammunitions  to secure the colony; a scandalous incident involving a bishop and a preacher in a cathedral; and the fierce storm that hit Manila.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010


U.S. Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis
"fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end"

1898 - President Emilio Aguinaldo of the still-in-revolution Philippine Republic writes to gulliby ask United States Admiral George Dewey to forward  to Washington his June 18 and 23 decrees establishing a  revolutionary dictatorial government to continue the fight for  independence, further stating that "the  desires on this government are to remain always in friendship  with the great North American nation, to which we are under many obligations"; on this same day, the  4th United States Military  Expedition to the Philippines sails for Manila under Maj. Gen.  Elwell S. Otis, in what would later prove to be preparation for the imperialistic American invasion of the Philippines: Otis would oversee many of the American atrocities in the bloody Filipino-American War and would be quoted for saying "fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end" in response to Aguinaldo's plea for an end to the war. 


Tuesday, July 13, 2010


Gen. Miguel C. Malvar

1901 - Gen. Miguel Malvar succeeds as Commander-in-Chief of the  beleaguered Philippine Republic following  President Emilio  Aguinaldo's treacherous capture by, and hasty swearing of fealty to, the imperialist United States forces during the bloody Filipino-American War; Malvar will eventually surrender to enemy flag in 1902  after US Gen. Franklin Bell's horrific reconcentration campaign  broke the back of the resistance movement in Batangas  province; other Filipino guerrila leaders, such as Macario Sakay  and Simeon Ola, and Muslim compatriots in the South will continue  the valiant war against the heavily armed North American  invaders until about 1913.

Monday, July 12, 2010


1899  - Filipino Gen. Artemio Ricarte issues a circular asking for  contributions to continue war operations against enemy American  forces, five months into the imperialistic United States invasion  of the fledgling Philippine Republic; the bloody Filipino-American War broke out in February 1899 after the Republican  administration of US President William McKinley decided to annex  the Philippines, whose revolutionary forces have already taken control of virtually most of the entire archipelago, on the ridiculous-sounding  pretext that God had supposedly spoken to him to colonize the  Southeast Asian land "to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and  Christianize them,"--this, when most of the Philippines have long been Catholic Christians. 

Sunday, July 11, 2010


1869 - Pio Valenzuela, future co-founder and auditor of the  revolutionary body Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), is born during the Spanish  colonial period; Valenzuela, will also be Gat Andres Bonifacio's  emissary to Jose Rizal just before the outbreak of the Revolution;  he will turn his back on his compatriots and the revolution,  surrending himself to the Spaniards after the KKK was discovered  and during the United States' invasion of the Philippines, will  accept American's offer of serving as municipal president of Polo,  Bulacan.

Saturday, July 10, 2010


World War II Blackout Bulbs

1941 - During imperialist American Occupation, blackout practices  in Manila and other parts of the Philippines are held in  anticipation of the Pacific Theatre phase of World War II;  apart from the blackouts wherein lights are dimmed so as not to make a certain place conspicuous  and easy  target for attacks, the colonial United States and Filipino officials also establish evacuation  centers and "air-aid drills" some five months before the Japanese  Imperial Army begins invading the US-occupied Philippines after bombing the  United States naval base at Pearl Harbor (December 1941).

Photo credit: anderson

Friday, July 9, 2010


US Forces, on a sinister plan to invade the Philippines, disembark
 1898 - Gen. Thomas M. Anderson communicates from the Philippines  to the United  States Adjutant-General in Washington, D.C. that he foresees a  possible conflict with Filipino forces during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Spanish-American War--this as  only three days earlier, Philippine President Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo  had informed Anderson that he has already ordered his soldiers "not to  interfere" with the American forces who have been entering the country following American officers' deceptive assurances that the US  is in sympathy with the Filipinos; in five months' time, the Treaty  of Paris will be signed, with Spain supposedly 'ceding' the  Philippines to the US and on February 4, 1899, the bloody  Philippine-American War will ensue.

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Invading American soldiers march to Manila
Photo credit:
1900 - Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo orders guerilla  officers to set aside the days between September 15 and 24 for a  general offensive against the invading United States forces, one  year and 5 months into the bloody Philippine-American War; two days  short of a year earlier, Aguinaldo stupidly directed his soldiers  "not to interfere" with the US forces entering the Southeast Asian  archipelago after officers of the emerging imperialist nation led by then-Admiral George Dewey deceptively assured him that America was an ally in the Filipinos' revolution against the Spanish colonial forces.

Wednesday, July 7, 2010


1899 - More than a month after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo had Gen. Antonio Luna assassinated, dispatches from Manila contain the statement that General Luna’s death has strengthened Aguinaldo’s leadereship. “Luna’s supporters are now outwardly loyal to Aguinaldo.”; Aguinaldo has been widely blamed for setting a trap for Luna's assassination on June 5, 1899, 5 months into the Philippine-American War, because he did not meet Luna despite his signed telegram calling him to a conference and because during the murder, Aguinaldo's mother looked out the window and asked: Is he still breathing?"

Tuesday, July 6, 2010


1898 - In what will prove to be a most stupid military decision,  Dictator Emilio Aguinaldo of the fledgling Philippine Republic will  assure imperialist American Gen. Thomas M. Anderson that he has  already ordered his "people not to interfere" with the American  forces who has been entering the Southeast Asian archipelago  during the Spanish-American War; Aguinaldo, who has led Filipinos to defeat the Spanish forces at almost every encounter and win control over almost the entire northern provinces and the bay coast from colonial Spanish forces, had  earlier been deceptively assured by United States Commodore  George Dewey that the US is an ally and in a few months, the  sinister and eventually successful American invasion plan against the Philippines will be revealed.

Photo credit: University of Texas

Monday, July 5, 2010


1896 - Several weeks before the breakout of the Philippine  Revolution, the Spanish colonial authorities sense activities relating  to the secret revolutionary organization, the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK) , with  Lieutenant Manuel Sityar of the Guardia Civil stationed in Pasig  sending a confidential letter to the Civil Governor of Manila informing  him of how certain individuals, especially in Mandaluyong and San  Juan del Monte, are enlisting men for unknown purposes, making  them sign in pledge with their own blood; the Katipunan was an anticolonial secret society established by Andres Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Deodato Arellano and Valentin Diaz on 7 July 1892, with political, moral and civic aims and a clear concept of one nation they referred to as TAGALOG [referring] to all born in the Philippines from what ever ethnic group. 

Sunday, July 4, 2010


Imperialist US Gen. Anderson
1898 - Three weeks after the declaration of the Philippine Independence when the Filipinos  have taken control of most of the archipelago, United States Gen. Thomas M. Anderson writes to  President Emilio Aguinaldo asking him for cooperation in the American war with Spain,  deceptively expressing supposed American sympathy with the people of the Philippine Islands; in  seven months' time, the United States will reveal its true, sinister imperialistic design on the Philippines, starting the bloody Filipino-American War, with  Gen. Anderson seeing action in the 1899 Battle of Manila where he captured Pasay and afterwards, leading his division in minor engagements at Santana, San Pedro and Guadalupe.

Saturday, July 3, 2010


Un Peso Banknote
1899 - Five months into the Filipino-American War, the fledgling Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo issues paper currency in  denominations of one, two, five, twenty, fifty and hundred pesos, with future autonomist  [collaborator for American rule]  Pedro A. Paterno, among others, being empowered to sign them jointly or severally; banknotes, with those bearing serial numbers signatures to be rarely issued as they are circulated along with 2 centimos de peso copper coins, are printed amidst the Filipinos' determination to assert their independence from former Spanish colonial rulers and the invading imperialist American forces.

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Friday, July 2, 2010


Jacob G. Schurman
1st Civilian Imperialist US Representative

1899 - Apolinario Mabini, Foreign Affairs Minister of the fledgling First Philippine Republic  writes to his friends, including Isidro de los Santos, deploring the death of Gen. Antonio  Luna (who was assassinated on orders of President Emilio Aguinaldo) and also stating how  the thermal baths at Balungaw have hardly improved his health;  imperialist  representative Jacob G. Schurman of the Philippine Commission [translation: United  States colonial body commission to help colonize the Philippines] returns to Manila from a  three-week tour in the southern islands and expresses the impression is that while "the  intelligent and substantial citizens" desire an American protectorate, the masses are  awaiting the settlement of the ongoing Philippine-American War in Luzon before making any  commitment.


Thursday, July 1, 2010


Gov-Gen Agustin   -  Gat Apolinario Mabini
1898 - Apolinario Mabini, chief adviser of Dictator Emilio Aguinaldo, requests permission to  proceed to Manila to persuade Spanish Governor-General Basilio Agustin to surrender to the  Filipinos during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against colonial Spain;  exactly two years later, on July 1, 1900, Aguinaldo's decree providing that the highest authority in the  Catholic Church in the Philippines be the Military Vicar General recognized by the President  of the Philippine Republic becomes effective, thus regulating the exercise of  ecclesisastical jurisdiction by Catholic religious people.