Sunday, January 31, 2010


1901 - Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo asks Isabela province' military commander for reinforcements as the imperialist American forces advance towards Palanan in big numbers.

1942 - The Japanese change the code utilized in their U-boats--from Enigma to Shark, giving British intelligence a serious setback during World War II.

1979 - Iran's religious leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, returns to Iran following 14 years of exile; the Shia Muslim leader was imprisoned in 1963 and later expelled for his opposition to reforms then being instituted by the American-backed Shah.

2003 - Seven American astronauts are killed when the Columbia space shuttle breaks up and disintegrates upon reentering the Earth's atmosphere over Texas; an investigation committee would pin the blame on breach of the heat shield that occurred as the shuttle took off two weeks earlier.

Saturday, January 30, 2010


1945 - Josefa Llanes Escoda, founder of the Girl Scout of the Philippines, is executed together with other Filipinos who have resisted Japanese Occupation during World War II.

1924 - The separatist Rhineland Government collapses weeks after the Bavarian government ordered the assassination of Franz Josef Heinz, the head of the autonomous Palatinate government.

1961 - "Ham," the chimp sent by the United States in an aborted mission to space, is recovered alive 676 km. from the Cape Canaveral launching site; the astronaut-chimp will later be sent to the National Zoo in Washington DC.

1968 - A Viet Cong squadron attacks and seizes the American Embassy in Saigon; the attack is part of the Tet offensive of simultaneous attacks that will later prove psychologically critical to the guerrilla cause.

Friday, January 29, 2010


1894 - Andres Bonifacio, leader of the secret Philippine revolutionary society Katipunan (KKK), declares that the organization's administrative judges should strictly adhere to and implement regulations in the bid to enlarge KKK membership.

1667 - The Treaty of Andrusovo is signed between Poland and Russia, ending the war between the two countries; Right-Bank Ukraine is returned to Poland, which, in turn, cedes most of the Left-Bank occupied by the Cossacks, to Russia.

1902 - Japan and Great Britain sign an important accord, marking an era of improved cooperation in naval commitments and other matters; the Japanese sees the alliance as a way of asserting regional status and modernizing their country while the treaty allows the powerful British navy to concentrate in Europe and its naval arms race with Germany.

1948 - Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, pacifist leader of India's independence movement, is assassinated by a Hindu fanatic; honored with the appellation Mahatma, meaning "the great soul," his civil disobedience methods will influence Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders around the globe.

Thursday, January 28, 2010


1899 - Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo promulgates the country's first constitution, referred to as the Malolos Constitution; it is Asia's very first democratic constitution but which, sadly, will soon be overrun by American colonization of the archipelago.

1942 - The South American nation of Ecuador cuts off diplomatic relations with the Axis powers, Germany, Japan, and Italy, during World War II.

1979 - China and the United States mark new relations as US President Jimmy Carter and his Chinese counterpart, Premiere Deng Xiaoping meet in Washington; the two countries sign historic cultural and scientific agreements.

1996 - French President Jacques Chirac announces the end of nuclear weapons testings in the Pacific following local and international condemnation of his nuclear policy;  soon after assumption into office, Chirac had lifted the three-year French moratorium on nuclear testing

Wednesday, January 27, 2010


1948 - Philippine  President Manuel Roxas grants amnesty to everyone accused of collaboration with the Japanese during World War II; the beneficiaries include President Jose P. Laurel and his entire cabinet that served during the Japanese Occupation period.

1918 - Civil war breaks out in Finland following the country's proclamation of independence from Russia; the Russian Bolshevik-supported Reds will triumph over the anti-Bolshevik Whites.

1986 - The American space shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after take-off, killing everyone on board; an investigative commission to be appointed by US President Ronald Reagan will later determine that the disaster is caused by the failure of the elastic "O-ring" seal in a solid-fuel rocket to properly function owing to the cold temperature at launch.

2005 - Jedudo (Jeju Island), the biggest island south of the Korean peninsula, is designated the "Island of World Peace" in the bid to promote peace in the northeastern part of Asia; the volcanic island has historically been marked by a tradition of peace.

Tuesday, January 26, 2010


1872 - Gov.-Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo bestows praise to the Catholic religious orders after the Spanish colonial forces quelled the Cavite mutiny staged by Filipino rebels in the province.

1944 - Leningrad is recaptured by the Soviet forces from the Germans soldiers who blocked the land link to the city some 2 1/2 years earlier; it is thought that hundreds of thousands of Soviets died from starvation, disease, exposure, or military action during the blockade.
1967 - Three American astronauts die when the Apollo 1 spacecraft caught fire; it is believed fire began from an electrical spark that  rapidly spread in the oxygen-filled capsule's atmosphere.

1973 - the Agreement on Ending the War and  Restoring Peace in Vietnam is signed by North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the United States, ending direct American involvement in the Vietnam Conflict; four years later on the same day in 1977, US  President Jimmy Carter will pardon Vietnam War draft dodgers in fulfillment of his campaign promise.

Monday, January 25, 2010


1821 - The first of the royal decrees allowing Filipino deputies to be elected to the Spanish Cortes are made; this was later stopped in 1837 when the Cortes held a secret session ending representation by deputies from the Philippine colony.

1788 - Capt. Arthur Phillip discovers Australia for the British empire as he guides a fleet of ships carrying convicts to be brought to New South Wales; this day will later be celebrated as Australia Day.

1950 - India becomes an independent republic as newly elected President Dr Rajendra Prasad, takes over from the King as the head of state and, simultaneously, a new constitution is adopted; Prasad figured in Mahatma Gandhi's nationalist campaign.

2006 - A French Polynesia Assembly report on how France subjected Tahiti to fallout from 40 years of repeated atmospheric nuclear tests is leaked to the local media some two weeks before it was officially released.

Sunday, January 24, 2010

January 25

1898 - The Spanish colonial government promulgates a proclamation granting amnesty to Filipino revolutionary leaders as part of the Biak-na-Bato truce agreement during the Philippine Revolution.

1901- Peter I of Russia publishes a royal decree establishing the Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation.

1905 - The largest diamond in the world is found in Pretoria South Africa; discovered 18 feet below the surface of the earth,  it weighs 1.33 pounds and is given the name "Cullinan."

1971 - Ugandan President Milton Obote is ousted during a coup by General Idi Amin while the latter was on a foreign visit.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

24 January

1897 - "The Cry of Tarlac" signals the spread of the Philippine Revolution in the Central Luzon province; it follows the initial "Cry of Pugadlawin" that launched the Filipinos' fight for independence from Spanish colonial rule.

1966 - 117 passengers of Air India are killed when the Boeing-707 plane they were riding crashes into the summit of the Alps mountain of Mont Blanc.

1972 - Japanese World War II sergeant Shoichi Yokoi is found in the jungles of Guam after hiding for 28 years; unaware that the war has long ended, he has survived with the help of handcrafted tools while waiting for Japanese Army members to return and give him further orders.

1986 - American spacecraft Voyager 2 space probe gets within 51,000 miles of the cloudtops of the planet Uranus; the interstellar itinerary of the NASA spacecraft also includes Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune.

Friday, January 22, 2010

23 January

1899 - The Malolos Republic, the Philippines' first independent government, is inaugurated by President Emilio Aguinaldo; it will not last long because imperialist America will soon start its colonization of the archipelago.

1368 - Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang begins his reign, ushering in the Ming Dynasty in China; considered one of the greatest eras of political and social order in human history, the Ming will last for over three centuries.

1945 - Adolf Hitler rather belatedly starts a new major German program of shipbuilding; within a few months, Nazi Germany and the rest of the Axis forces will be defeated in World War II>.

1973 - Mt. Helgafell in Iceland's Heimaey island erupts after 7,000 years of being dormant; luckily, a crack on the slope opens all the way until the ocean, letting the lava flow towards the water.

Thursday, January 21, 2010

22 January

1878 - Britain leashes North Borneo from the Sultan of Sulu in the Philippines for $5,000 a year; the deal is part of the British government's bid to acquire greater control of the island and to protect and assist the North Borneo Chartered Company tasked to administer the internal affairs of the protectorate island.

- The longest reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria dies; she has been referred to as the grandmother of Europe because many of her descendants intermarried with members of other monarchies in the continent.

1980 - Soviet nuclear physicist, Nobel Laureate and outspoken critic Dr. Andrei Sakharov is placed in internal exile; he has earlier called for  Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan during an interview with an American television.

2006 - "Dayang Yihao (Ocean No 1)," the first Chinese scientific ship  returns home after its 300-day circumnavigation of the world; the mission is the first ever for China.

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

21 January

1899 - The Malolos Constitution is declared in effect by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the fledgling Philippine Republic; in less than a month, the Philippine-American War will be started by the US forces.

1793 - King Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine for the supposed guilt of conspiring with leaders of foreign countries so as to invade France; moments after his blood dripped to the ground, many in the mob dipped their handkerchiefs in it.

1981 - Iran frees American hostages held at the US embassy in Tehran after 444 days following the promise of the US government to unfreeze Iranian assets in American banks, which were earlier frozen by former President Jimmy Carter.

2007 - As part of the International Polar Bear multinational efforts to study the threatened species, an underwater, computer-guided robot glider sails from the Antarctic coast.

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

20 January

1942 - During World War II, Japan's Congress grants the Philippines the "honor of independence" on the condition that the Filipinos collaborate in the promotion of the Co-Prosperity Sphere.

1841 - China cedes Hong Kong as part of the "Unequal Treaties" agreement following the Opium Wars.

1925 - Japan and the Soviet Union settle their disputes, restoring diplomatic relations during the Russia-Japanese Convention wherein the two Asian countries come to several agreements.

1961 - John F. Kennedy is sworn in as United States President, the first Roman Catholic and youngest ever elected president in American history.

Monday, January 18, 2010

19 January

1886 - Voluntary migration of natives to the Philippine island of Palawan is encouraged by a royal decree issued by the Spanish colonial king; incentives  include exemptions from payments of tax and dues to public treasury, free passage, land gratis (three hectares), etc.

1915 - Frenchman George Claude patents the first electric neon sign, a lighting tube, in the United States.

1942 - Japan is able to take British North Borneo during World War II; the British governor surrenders the island as the Japanese forces come to the Sandakan shore unopposed.

1996 - Indira Gandhi begins to lead India after winning the elections; the only daughter of  the country's very first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira will become the first Indian woman PM.

Sunday, January 17, 2010

18 January

1899 - The first issue of the Philippine revolutionary newspaper "Kalayaan" (Freedom) issue comes out; authored by Katipunan founder Andres Bonifacio & Emilio Jacinto, et al., the second issue will never reach circulation because the printing press will be discovered by the Spanish colonial authorities.

1778 - The Hawaiian Islands first become known to the West when navigator Capt. James Cook 'discovers' it, naming it "Sandwich Islands."

1919 - The Paris Peace Conference begins in the French capital; it will officially signal the end of the First World War.

1975 - Former Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister Garfield Todd and daughter Judith--two leading white advocates of the rule of majority blacks--are arrested in response to increasing public unrest.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

January 17

1901 - Philippine President on-the-guerrilla-run Emilio Aguinaldo issues a manifesto condemning the atrocities of imperialist Americans during the Philippine-American War.

1893 - Hawaii Kingdom's last monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, is deposed by a group of American and European businessmen scheming for United States' annexation of the islands.

1942 - Afrikaners in South Africa's Parliament unsuccessfully push for a motion turning the country into a neutral republic not associated with Britain

1995 - A massive earthquake devastates the Japanese industrial city of Kobe; the calamity will leave at least 200 dead and 13,000 people injured as entire buildings, blocks of apartment and even an elevated highway crumble to the ground.

Friday, January 15, 2010


1901 - Filipino revolutionary leaders Apolinario Mabini, Gen. Artemio Ricarte, Gen. Maximo Hizon, Gen. Pio del Pilar and Pablo Ocampo are exiled to Guam by the imperialist American colonizers.

1547 - Ivan IV Vasilyevich, also referred to as "Ivan the Terrible," is crowned as the first Czar of Russia; his long reign saw the rise of the Asian country into a more powerful, larger multi-ethnic and multi-confessional nation.

1979 - The United States-backed Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi flees Iran after months of Muslim fundamentalists-led, increasingly violent protests against his reign.

2001 - President Laurent Kabila of the Democratic Reopublic of Congo is shot by one of his bodyguards as part of an international plot to depose him; Kabila's death will be confirmed only two days later.

Thursday, January 14, 2010


1945 - Ardent Filipino nationalist and great socialist leader Pedro B. Abad Santos dies from ulcer during World War II; "Don Perico," brother of Jose Abad Santos, was one of the leaders of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (original Communist Party of the Philippines founded in 1930).

1951 - The 6,000-mile-tall Mt. Lamington in New Guinea bellows out smoke before exploding five days later to destroy some 5,000 people and numerous acres of agricultural land; the volcano has never exploded before in human memory.

1970 - Mummar al-Qaddafi is proclaimed as Libyan premier by the General People's Congress; Qaddafi was a nationalist Army captain who conspired to depose monarchical rule in the North African country some four months earlier.

1997 - Princess Diana calls for an international ban on anti-personnel mines during a visit to Angola; she incurs the ire of conservative British ministers for being "ill-informed" but gets applauded by the Labour camp which backs international moratorium on landmines.

Wednesday, January 13, 2010


1889 - Filipino reformist and patriot Jose Rizal writes his close friend Ferdinand Blumentritt about the latter's appointment as president of the recently formed Association Internationale des Philippinistes; in the letter, Rizal also mentions the plan of the group to hold a conference at the Paris Exposition.

1776 - Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann, author, lawyer and conductor known for his mastery of the macabre and weird, is born in Germany; his work is the basis of Jacques Offenbach's opera, the "Tales of Hoffmann."

1986 - The Rossiya, the fourth atomic icebreaker of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, takes its maiden voyage.

1994 - Duchess of Kent converts to Catholic Christianity to become the first member of the British Royal Family to embrace the faith after a 1701 act of parliament banned those in line to the throne from converting or marrying into Roman Catholicism.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010


1687 - English buccaneer and navigator William Dampier and other companions leave the Philippine island of Mindanao after obtaining some supply for their provisions; he will describe the Muslim Mindanao people as "the greatest nation in the island."

1128  - Pope Honorius II endorses the  Knights Templar by granting papal sanction to the military monastic order created to protect Christian pilgrims en-route to the Holy Land.

1972 - The Prime Minister of Ghana, Dr Kofi Busia, is ousted  in a bloodless military coup while he undergoes treatment in London, United Kingdom.

2004 - United States soldier Joseph Darby reports the abuses committed on Iraqi prisoners to the Criminal Investigations Division of the Army.

Monday, January 11, 2010


1903 - Imperialist American Civil Governor Willian Howard Taft opposes the return of Filipino revolutionary leader-on-exile Apolinario Mabini unless he takes the oath of allegiance to the United States; Mabini swears fealty in order to return to the Philippines some two months before his death.

1898 - Nishi Tokujir┼Ź begins his term as Foreign Minister under the 3rd Ito administration; born from a Samurai family, he will later also serve as Japan's ambassador to the Qing Dynasty of China.

1984 - Restoration work on the Great Pyramids of Egypt adopts the interlocking block system--the construction technique used by the original ancient builders; the move puts a stop to prolonged frustration over the modern mortal system earlier used.

2003 - Maurice Gibb, member of the famous Bee Gees pop band, dies from complications suffered from surgery intended to remove an intestinal blockage.

Sunday, January 10, 2010


1897 - Thirteen Filipino revolutionaries and masons known as "Bagumbayan Martyrs" are executed by Spanish colonial authorities during what historian T.M. Kalaw described as a "period of terror" in Spain's bid to contain the revolutionary momentum sweeping the Philippines.

1935 - Amelia Earhart, an American, becomes the first woman and only the second person to fly solo  (across the Pacific Ocean from Honolulu to Oakland, California).

1942 - Japan invades the Dutch colonies  Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch Borneo (Kalimantan/Borneo).

1998 - Around a 100 Algerians are massacred by Islamic extremists in two villages in the North African nation; the attacks follow a series of Ramadan-month massacres.

Saturday, January 9, 2010


1899 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, approves the hostile attitude of Gen. Juan Cailles towards the imperialist American forces. He tells Cailles in a reply: “I approve and applaud what you have done with the Americans… I believe that they are playing with us until the arrival of their reinforcements, but I shall send an ultimatum and remain always on the alert.”

1901 - Crude oil in enormous amount is discovered near Beaumont, Texas, marking the start of the American oil industry.

1958 - Robert James "Bobby" Fischer at the age of 14 years and 9 months wins the 1957/58 United States Championship and Zonal, with no losses, 5 draws and 8 wins.

1996 - Jordan's King Hussein makes his historic first public visit in Tel Aviv, heralding years of improved relations between Jordan and Israel.

Friday, January 8, 2010


1945 - The United States Army begins landing on Lingayen Gulf in Luzon island under Operation Mike 1 in the bid to retake the Philippines from Japan during World War II.

1493 - Italian explorer Chrisopher Columbus supposedly makes the mistake of identifying manatees as "mermaids" while sailing close to what is now known as the Dominican Republic.

1792 - The Russian-Turkish War (1787-1791) is ended with the signing of a peace treaty between the two countries.

2005 - Former Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas shows early lead in the presidential elections; he will will the polls and be sworn into office on January 15.

Thursday, January 7, 2010


1847 - Filipino revolutionary Severino Lapidario is born; he will become a prison warden and one of the “Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite" to be executed by Spanish colonial military authorities during the 1896 Revolution in the Philippines.

1961 - After seven years of staging guerrilla warfare, the people of Algeria win the French vote for their freedom following a referendum on the issue of the colony's independence.

1979 - Vietnamese and rebel allies force the retreat of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge soldiers as the Cambodian capital falls; Vietnam is backed by the Soviets while Cambodia is supported by China.

1998 - Astronomers from the United States announce their research findings that the universe is  expanding at an increasingly rapid pace, suggesting that the dominant energy is not visible but, rather, is found in empty space.

Wednesday, January 6, 2010


1650- Subano insurrectionists in the Philippines kill Spanish colonizers, including Jesuit priest Juan del Campo.

1610 - Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei first discovers three of Jupiter's moons--Callisto, Io and Europa--with his homemade telescope.   

1789 - The first United States presidential election is held, with white, propertied men voting to choose state electors; George Washington unsurprisingly wins to become the first American president.

1989 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan dies of cancer at the age of 87; his rule covered the two World Wars.

Tuesday, January 5, 2010


1812 - Melchora Aquino de Ramos, Filipino revolutionary against Spanish colonial forces,is born; she would become known as "Tandang Sora" ("Old Sora"), earning the title of "Mother of Revolution" for her role in extending aid and moral support to injured Katipuneros.

1838 - Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail publicly demonstrate the electric telegraphic system for the first time in New Jersey, United States.
1942 - Japanese forces are able to capture 11 United States Navy Corps nurses following the Fall of Manila, Philippines, during World War II.

1992 - The United States gives a 45-moratorium on silicone-gel breast implants pending safety investigations.

Monday, January 4, 2010


1899 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, issues a counter-manifesto to (a softened version) of United States President William McKinley's imperialistic "Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation; Aguinaldo warns of his government being “disposed to open hostilities if the American troops attempt to take forcible possession of the Visayan islands.”

1896 - The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen is reported in a newspaper.

1972 - The development of the space shuttle, an American space vehicle designed to be reused, begins under Richard Nixon.

1976 - Khmer Rouge communist leader Pol Pot changes the name of Cambodia to Kampuchea and legalizes his government.

Sunday, January 3, 2010


1897 - The 11 martyrs of Bicol are executed by Spanish colonial authorities in Bagumbayan some four months after the outbreak of the Philippine Himagsikan during five days after polymath, patriot, and foremost propagandist Jose Mercado Rizal met the same fate by firing squad; the execution followed the arrest, imprisonment, and torture of the martyrs in Bicol, along with some other suspects, before being shipped to Manila for trial on October 19, 1896; Domingo Abella, Manuel Abella, Fr. Severino Diaz, Fr. Inocencio Herrera, Camilo Jacob, Cornelio Mercado, Florencio Lerma, Mariano Melgarejo, Fr. Tomas Prieto, Gabriel Prieto, and Macario Valentin were all adjudged guilty of rebellion and sentenced to die by firing squad, with Leon Hernandez, Mariano Ordenanza, Ramon Abella and Ramon Arana either dying in prison or dying in exile  in Fernando Po island off Africa, and Fr. Manuel Subarno and Fr. Severo Estrada having been cleared of charges; the names of the suspects were extracted by the hated Spaniards through the arrest and torture/interrogation of Masonic lodge member and future general of the revolution, Vicente Lukban, as well as trickery during the interrogation of Malinao Albay parish priest Tomas Prieto; the first batch of revolutionaries executed in Bagumbayan took place in August 31, 1896 after the secret-society-turned-revolutionary government  the first batch of revolutionaries executed in Bagumbayan were some 57 Katipuneros, taking place in August 31, 1896 after the secret-society-turned revolutionary government Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan launched the general uprising two days earlier, with the colonial Spaniards reacting with terror-level response to quell the revolution that has begun in eight Luzon provinces but soon spread like wildfire to other parts of the archipelago. 

46 BC - The greatly outnumbered forces of Julius Caesar is defeated by the side of one of his former lieutenants, Titus Labienus, during the Battle of Ruspina (in modern Tunisia).

1936 - Billboard Magazine starts publishing their hit music chart.

- The communist forces of North Korea and Red China captures Seoul during the Korean War.

Saturday, January 2, 2010


1890 - Filipino polymath, propagandist, and patriot Jose Mercado Rizal writes fellow reformist Mariano Ponce, informing him that he had already sent nine copies of the Morga book to Fernando Canon; the Morga work is Rizal's republication of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Events in the Philippine Islands) that discusses the ancient history of the Philippine archipelago before the colonization schemes of Spain; Ponce will later praise Rizal for his work on Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas involving the writing of the excellent introduction and of annotations showing that the natives of the islands had an advanced civilization before the Spanish colonizers came; while the Morga work is valuable in its record of the early Filipino culture, including ethics, skills, and social patterns that have either been destroyed or comprised during the Spanish colonization,  Rizal republished it in 1890 apparently as an attempt to neutralize the obvious bias of Morga in the Spaniard's rather disjointed writing of the history of wars, intrigues, diplomacy and evangelization of the archipelago, even including inventions of  'facts', in the bid to defend the bloody conquest of the natives; Rizal, Ponce, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Marcelo H. del Pilar form the more prominent members of the Propaganda Movement aiming to foster heightened awareness of the "mother" country Spain as to the needs and plight of its colony, the Philippines and to make for a closer and more equal association of the indios/Filipinos and Spaniards.

1922 - Manuel Artigas y Cuerva, a Filipino-Spanish biographer, bibliographer, historian, and journalist, is reappointed as acting director of the Philippine Public Library; he published a number of works that proved to have documentary/historical value.

1868 - The Meiji Restoration topples the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan, restoring imperial rule.

1922 - The intact mummy of Egyptian boy Pharaoh Tutankhamen is discovered in the KV62 tomb in the Valley of the Kings after more than 3,000 years of being undisturbed and buried with what has been described as fantastic ancient treasures.

1962 - Pope John XXIII excommunicates Cuba's Fidel Castro in line with a 1949 papal decree that forbids Catholics from extending support to Communists.

Friday, January 1, 2010


1899 - Apolinario Mabini is appointed Prime Minister to lead the Mabini Cabinet of the First Philippine Republic (which will be inaugurated on January 23, 1899).

1839 - The first photographic image of the moon is taken by Frenchman Louis Daguerre.

1888 - The (paper) drinking straw is patented by Marvin Stone; the early drinking straws were made of hollow, dry grass that imparted the taste of grass to the beverage.

1980 - United States President Jimmy Carter ends the Cold War detente when he asks the Senate to defer action on Strategic Arms Limitation Talks-II treaty following the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan.