Wednesday, November 30, 2011


1863 - Future Filipino revolutionary supreme leader  and unacknowledged First President (revolutionary  government) Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, is born  in Manila, the Philippines during the Spanish  colonial period; born to Catalina de Castro, a Spanish mestiza, and Santiago Bonifacio a tailor who serves as a teniente mayor (municipal official) of Tondo,  Bonifacio is the eldest in what would be a brood of  four boys and one girl would who become orphan at  a young age; the future "Father of the Philippine  Revolution" against Spain would self study and  support his siblings by engaging in the family business of selling fans and canes before helping establish the  secret society Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) and ultimately turning it  into a revolutionary government following its  premature discovery in the latter part of 1896.

Raw Photograph: Museo Villalolid Site

Tuesday, November 29, 2011


Hen. Luciano San Miguel
1898 - The Filipino representatives of the Malolos Congress approve the Constitution of the fledgling  Philippine Republic more than five months after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy declared the Independence of  the Southeast Asian nation but three months after the infamous Mock Battle of Manila in which the United  States colluded with Spain in falsely making it  appear that the Americans, instead of the Filipinos,  were the ones who overcame the colonial Spaniards  in the islands; the Malolos Constitution is noted for  its provision separating the church and state and  for recognizing the equality of all forms of worship.

1899 - One year and nearly ten months into the  protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914),  imperialist military officer Arthur. MaArthur reports from Bayambang,  Pangasinan as to Col. J. Franklin Bell's encounter  with the Filipino freedom fighters led by Generals Luciano San Miguel and Jose Alejandrino; the series of battles occurred in a mountain west of Mangatarem, with  the native forces forced to scatter and the  pale-skinned enemy invaders being able to capture  all all their quick-firing and Krupp guns,  ammunition, powder factory and arsenal, with  thousands of pounds of lead and sheet copper, all  their transportation, engineering tools, clothing,  and food supplies; Bayambang, Pangasinan would be the last seat of the Philippine Republic that Aguinaldo left on  November 13 in his march towards Isabela; days earlier, the towns of Vigan in Ilocos Sur and Bayombong in Nueva Ecija have fallen to the vile imperialist Bald Eagle forces.

Monday, November 28, 2011


1899 - Nearly ten months into the bloody and  protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914)Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya surrenders to the  invading enemy Americans led by Lt. Monroe of the  Fourth; Monroe commands the advance party of the 50 Bald Eagle soldiers on Carranglan train, two days after Vigan, Ilocos Sur fell as well to the imperialist  North American invaders; about two years earlier, the Americans deceptively began positioning  themselves as "ally" to the Filipino cause of  independence against the yoke of Spanish  colonization, which eventually led Philippine leader Emilio F. Aguinaldo to stupidly allow the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that false that falsely showed  to the world that it is the Americans and not the Filipinos that have defeated the colonial Spaniards  in the Southeast Asian archipelago.

Imperialist U.S. Gen. John J. Pershing
1909 - Imperialist American Gen. John J. Pershing  is appointed military governor of the major island  of Mindanao, nearly 10 years and 10 months into  the protracted and bloody Philippine-American War  (1899-1914); also referred to as "Black Jack,"  Pershing, who earlier either was sent or requested transfer  to the Philippines in the first year of the Fil-Am War  as U.S. Army Captain, would later be known for  helping inflict "thousands of civilian casualties"  during the extensive military operations against  Filipino Muslims on Jolo; he will be the subject of a supposed legend--of having crushed tenacious Muslim resistance to imperialist American rule by the threat of contaminating their bodies with dirty pig blood before or while killing them and even wrapping their dead bodies with pigskin before burial.

Sunday, November 27, 2011


1623 - Spanish King Charles V confirms the permission  granted the Dominican friars by the governor and  archbishop of the colony, the Philippines, as to the  establishment of a college in Manila (what would be the University of Santo Tomas), several decades after colonial settlements were first built in  the Southeast Asian archipelago; the college originally organized as the Colegio de Nuestra Senora del Santisimo Rosario in 1611 would become the University of Santo Tomas following the issuance of a Papal bull by Pose Innocent X; the college would be the only Royal and Pontifical University in Asia, as well as the oldest outside in Asia and even older than the Harvard University in North America. 

Photo credit:

Saturday, November 26, 2011


1899 - The Philippine province town of Vigan, Ilocos province is captured by the invading enemy Americans under Lieutenant-Commander MCrackin's  Oregon landing forces more than nine months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); a month and 2 weeks earlier, the imperialist United States decided to launch a major offensive in its wicked war of invasion against the fledgling Philippine Republic; the Americans had earlier conned Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, the native revolutionary leader, into believing that they were the Filipinos' allies in the war of independence against Spain, which made Aguinaldo stupidly allow the infamous Mock 
 Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that it is the Bald Eagle soldiers and not the Philippine force that have defeated the colonial Spaniards in the Southeast Asian archipelago.

1898 - The fledgling Philippine Republic is authorized to issue paper money in the amount of three million pesos,  redeemable in three years; the authorization is issued by  the Malolos Congress that opened in September this year  amidst Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo's earlier Declaration of   Philippine Independence and imperialist American  posturing to invade the new Southeast Asian nation; the  Aguinaldo government will issue peso banknotes with the  text "Republica Filipina Papel Moneda de Un Peso" on  obverse, along with copper coins. 

Photo credit:

Friday, November 25, 2011


Imperialist U.S. Gen. Henry W. Lawton, Fil-Am War
1899 - Nine months into the protracted  Filipino-American War (1899-1914), some 115  Spanish prisoners, $75,000 Philippine Republic  money, and other properties are captured near  Tayug, Pangasinan, by the troops of imperialist  United States General Henry Ware Lawton; the  sizable capture came less than a month before   Lawton, veteran of the Indian pacification wars,  including the Geronimo campaign, will be felled by  the sharpshooting Tiradores de la Muerte  (Marksmen of Death) troops of another  Geronimo--Filipino Gen. Licerio Geronimo-- in what  would be the Philippines' biggest prey catch in their  war for freedom against the invading Bald Eagles.

1804 - The Spanish King receives the  recommendation for the nationalization of churches  in the colony, the Philippines, from  Governor-General Rafael Maria de Aguilar y Ponce de Leon; some nine years earlier on June 13, 1795,  a royal decree had underlined the spiritual  development of the curacies in the colony; de  Aguilar, who serves from 1793-1806 and  responsible for opening Manila to foreign trade, will  later express his regard of the Philippine Islands as  "the most valuable colony in the world," being "so  extensive, so valuable and so productive."

Photo credit:

Thursday, November 24, 2011


1892 - The first railroad line in the Philippines,  covering a distance of 195 km. from Manila to  Dagupan, is open during the waning years of the  Spanish colonial period; the Manila-Dagupan  railroad, said to have been built by the British, is  one of the three railroad lines proposed by the colonial Spaniards, with the second and third lines to be realized under the imperialist American rule.

1898 - San Jose, Antique is occupied by the expeditionary revolutionary forces of Gen. Leandro  Fullon y Locsin during the second phase of the Philippine  Revolution against Spain; Fullon's forces aboard the flagship Isabela landed on Antique some two months earlier and began liberating many towns of the  province; following the capitulation of San Jose, these officials are named to head Antique:  Angel Salazar, Sr., Governor; Santos Capadocia,  Vice-Governor; Anacleto Villavert Jimenez and Jose  Fontanilla, Councilor of Justice; Anselmo Alicante, Councilor of Internal Revenue and Vicente Gella,  Representative of Malolos; Fullon would later join forces with Gen. Teresa Magbanua who has successfully repulsed the Spaniards in Capiz, Iloilo.

Photo credit:

Wednesday, November 23, 2011


1900 - One year and nine months into the Philippine  American War (1899-1914), imperialist Lt.-Col.  John Mallory suggests that the United States  government suppress the Hongkong Committee by  making representations with the Hongkong  government; the Hongkong Committee/Junta, which is traced to the "Filipino Revolutionary Committee" based in Hong Kong that was formed in response to the call of Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro's call for Revolution, has evolved to mainly engage in procuring ordinance for the revolutionary soldiers following the Pact of Biak-na-Bato; the Hongkong Junta later served as the representative of Emilo Aguinaldo's government with the Spaniards in the negotiations to secure Filipinos' support in the Spanish-American War before leaning over to ally with the U.S.; as America revealed its vile true intention of invading the Philippines, the Hong Kong Committee began expanding its composition to strengthen its funds and arms acquisition campaign and propaganda efforts, including international recognition of Filipino independence. 

Photo credit:

Tuesday, November 22, 2011


1877 - Cecilio Apostol, future Filipino poet, lawyer, and newspaperman, is born in Santa Cruz, Manila   during the colonial Spanish period;  he would write for the revolutionary newspaper La Independencia  (official organ of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's Philippine  Republic) under the pen name Catulo and later  espouse Filipino independence from imperialist American rule; writing in Spanish and, later, English, his "Pentelicas" would be regarded as a masterpiece of Filipino writing in the Spanish language.

1894 - Jose Corazon de Jesus y Pangilinan, future Filipino nationalist Tagalog writer, poet and "King of  Balagtasan" (duplo joust), is born in Santa Cruz  Manila; de Jesus would also be known as "Huseng  Batute," his pen name for his Buhay Maynila column  in the Taliba where he satirizes society under  the imperialist American rule and also espouse  independence for the Philippines; to finish but not  practice law, de Jesus, along with his contrived opponent Florentino Collantes, would re-popularize balagtasan and would also write musical lyrics for  Nicanor Abelardo, Crispino Reyes  (Arimundingmunding), and others.

1902 - One year and nine months into the bloody  and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914),  the colonial United States invaders lays the  121-kilometer submarine cable from Romblon,  Romblon, to Boac, Marinduque.

Monday, November 21, 2011


1564 - The Spanish colonial Legazpi-Urdaneta expedition bound for the Philippine Islands sails from Navidad, Mexico with the primary aim of discovering a new route to the Islands of the West; some four decades earlier, explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who would be slain by early native freedom fighter and Mactan chieftain Lapu-Lapu,"discovered" the Philippines for the King of Spain, King Philip II; the Legazpi-Urdaneta expedition will attempt to establish settlements in the Southeast Asian archipelago but will be met by defiant resistance by Filipino natives.

Imperialist U.S. Gen. Arthur MacArthur
1899 - The invading enemy American forces occupy Tarlac, the seat of the fledgling Philippine Republic -on-the-run, thus forcing Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo to further retreat to the mountains of northern Luzon, one year and nine months into the Filipino-American War (1899-1914);  three days earlier, imperialist United States General Arthur MacArthur began occupying the province of Tarlac amidst the Filipino generals' decision to continue to protect the independence of the Philippine Republic against the North American invaders through guerrilla warfare; Aguinaldo had earlier been conned into believing that the Americans were allies, leading him to allow the free entry of G.I.s into the archipelago until they have able to position themselves well for the wicked invasion of the Philippines.

Photo credit:

Sunday, November 20, 2011


1896 - Filipino patriot, reformist, and polymath  Jose P. Rizal appears before Spanish colonial officer  Col. Francisco Olive to answer the charges of  rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy pressed against  him; Olive was the same colonial officer who led a  company of soldiers in ejecting Rizal's family and  other tenants of Calamba five years earlier; Rizal  was arrested in October 1896 as he was aboard  the Isla de Panay en route to Cuba, another Spanish colony where he volunteered to minister to yellow  fever victims in the bid to disassociate himself  from the Philippine Revolution that broke out  prematurely in August of the same year; earlier in  October 29, when the boat he was made to board  for return to the Philippines, the S.S. Colon, arrived  at Singapore, the writ of Habeas Corpus he was the  object of was turned down owing to the fact that  his detention was ordered by the Spanish  government and that his boat carried the Spanish  flag.

Photo credit:

Saturday, November 19, 2011


1595 - King Philip II declares through a royal cedula  that Manila is the capital of the Philippine  archipelago, several decades after colonial Spanish  settlements began to be built in the Southeast  Asian islands; the Philippine islands were first  "discovered" by Spain through the 1521 expedition  of explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who would be killed  by Lapu-Lapu, early Filipino patriot and Mactan island chieftain; Philip II ordered other expeditions--in  1542 under Ruly Lopez de Villalobos and in 1559 as  the  king became convinced that the Philippine Islands are part of the Spanish zone and not of  Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas'  demarcation.

1859 - Future Filipino revolutionary and lawyer Isabelo Artacho is  born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, northern Philippines;  Artacho would take part in the Philippine Revolution  against Spain and would help draft the Constitution  of the Biak-na-Bato, made for the retreating  government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo; on October  1, 1899 in Hong Kong, Artacho would later pen the "Declaration Letter and Proclamation" wherein he  attacks the crimes and abuses allowed, or  perpetrated, by Aguinaldo's government, including  the rape of  "girls and faithful wives, murders, and  robberies.

Friday, November 18, 2011


1899 - Nine months into the protracted and bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914) the Filipino  freedom fighters engage in guerrilla warfare as soon  as enemy General Arthur MacArthur occupies the Tarlac towns of Gerona, Paniqui, and Tarlac; some  six days earlier, a Filipino council of war decided to continue the war for freedom through guerrilla warfare against the invading  Bald Eagle forces even as the fledgling Philippine Republic retreats further northward with the fall of the capital, Tarlac to the imperialist United States forces. 

1848 - Trinidad Tecson y Perez, future Filipina  revolutionary ("Henerala Ningning") and Red Cross  organizer, is born at San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan; Tecson  would become an active member of Logia de Adapcion, the women's masonic lodge of the Philippines, and later be  initiated into the women's chapter of the secret, pro-independence society,  Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK); as the Revolution against Spain  breaks out, she would fight with fellow Filipino  Katipuneros in twelve battles under five generals,  including Gen. Francisco Makabulos, gen. Isidoro  Torres, and Gen. Mariano Llanera; under the period of imperialist American Occupation, Tecson would be  the first Filipina to organize the Red Cross,  eventually being dubbed the "Mother of Philippine  Red Cross."

Photo credit:

Thursday, November 17, 2011


Gen-en-Geje Martin T. Delgado

1898 - A provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas is inaugurated in Santa Barbara, Iloilo in a  major island in the Philippines more than five months  after the acknowledged central revolutionary  government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared  Independence from colonial Spain but less than three  months prior to the Filipino American War (1899-1914); the nucleus of the Visayan provisional  revolutionary government was the revolutionary Comite Central Revolucionario de Visayas that was formed in March that year by patriots from Iloilo province and who did not want to recognize the supremacy of Gen. Aguinaldo's government; the Gen-en-Gefe is Gen. Martin T. Delgado as the Visayan revolutionary government's  offices are Roque Lopez, President; Vicente  Franco, Vice-President and Secretary of the Interior;  Venancio Concepcion, Secretary of Finance; Ramon  Avanceña, Secretary of State; Jovito Yusay, Secretary  of Justice; Julio Hernandez, Secretary of War; and  Fernando Salas, General Secretary; despite the non-recognition of the Aguinaldo government, the same Philippine Republic flag is raised in the inauguration, the tricolor having been sewn from a replica of the flag sewn by Marcella Agoncillo in Hong Kong. 

Photo credit:

Wednesday, November 16, 2011


1890 - Elpidio Quirino y Rivera, the future sixth officially recognized President of the Philippines, is born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur; a lawyer by profession, he  would be elected as member of the Philippine House  of Representatives before becoming senator during  the American colonial era; Quirino would become the  first Vice-President , before becoming the second  President, of the Southeast Asian nation  following the  United States' "granting" of Philippine Independence on July 4, 1946;  Quirino would serve as President as a widower, with  her surviving eldest daughter, Vicky, serving as official hostess and performing the traditional functions of the First  Lady.

1898 - This day's issue of the  La Independencia, the official  organ of the fledgling Philippine Republic, carries a story about rifle arms shipment from Japan that landed at Naic, Cavite the past month; La Independencia was established by Gen. Antonio Luna some two months earlier during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain when the Filipino revolutionaries already declared independence on June 12, 1898 after having defeated the Spanish colonizers in most parts of the archipelago, but with Spain and the emerging 20th century imperialist nation, the United States, having staged in August  the infamous Mock Battle of Manila where the two powers falsely made it appear before the world that the Spaniards were overcame not by the Filipinos but by the Americans.

1904 - The American colonial government establishes the Iwahig Penal Colony, orignally name Iuhuit Penal settlement, through the imperialist body Philippine Commission [translation: United States colonial commission to help colonize the Philippines]; the establishment of the Iwahig colony comes nearly six years into the protracted and bloody Philippine-American War (1899 - 1914) but more than three years after the United States President falsely declared the end of the conflict.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011


1777 - A colonial Spanish decree recommends than an institution for confining vagrants and  dissolute persons be established in the  Philippines, some 200 years into Spain's  colonization of the Southeast Asian archipelago;  around  69 years later, colonial Spain would issue an  anti-vagrancy law that would include the  one-month employment of the idlers in public  works before being sent back to their  hometowns.

1935 - The American colonial-era Commonwealth  of the Philippine is inaugurated with Manuel L.  Quezon as President of the Philippines and  Sergio Osmeña, Sr., as Vice-President; Quezon prevailed over presidential rival Emilio F. Aguinaldo, the former being the ayuda-de-campo of the latter during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914), apparently over the issue of Aguinaldo's power grab from, and execution of, the original leader of the Philippine Revolution, Andres Bonifacio y de Castro; prior to the inauguration, the Philippines had an insular colonial government, a kind of territorial colonial government that reported to the United State Bureau of Insular Affairs beginning about 1901 when the imperialist Americans began to establish themselves into the islands but the Filipino-American War still raging, mostly guerrilla-style from the end of the Filipino freedom fighters. 

Photo credit:

Monday, November 14, 2011


1762 - The Ilokos Revolt begins under the  leadership of Diego Silang y Andaya in the  northern part of the Philippine archipelago  during the Spanish colonial times; Silang would  lead his people in the Ilokos province to a  short-lived liberation from colonial oppression,  including high taxes and forced labor, declaring  his Ilokano people independent exactly within a  month and making Vigan the capital of the Free Ilocos; most unfortunately, Silang would die  under the hands of traitor assassins hired by  colonial Spaniards--his erstwhile friends,  Miguel  Vico, a mestizo, with help from Captain Pedro  Becbec, who will shoot him at the back with a  muskey six months later; Silang's wife, Maria Josefa Gabriela, of Ilocano-Itneg parentage, would continue the fight for freedom of the Ilocanos.

1875 - Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio, future  Filipino revolutionary general and Philippine-American War (1899-1914), hero, is born in San Jose,  Bulakan, Bulakan; he assisted his uncle, Marcelo  H. Del Pilar, in his great propaganda work  against the abuses of the Spanish friars and  when the Philippine Revolution against Spain  broke out in 1896, Gregorio or "Goyo"  volunteered for military service through Col.  Vicente Enriquez; one of the youngest generals, del Pilar would be known as the "Hero of Tirad  Pass" during the Fil-Am War, fighting the enemy  Bald Eagle soldiers to his last breathe in the bid  to enable the escape of his President, Gen.  Emilio F. Aguinaldo of the Philippine  Republic-under-imperialist-siege. 

1897 - "Purely volunteer" Filipino mediator Pedro  A. Paterno communicates to the  Spanish  governor-general Primo de Rivera that the leader  of the Filipino revolutionary movement, Gen.  Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, has accepted the  Spanish proposal of amnesty; to forge the  amnesty pact, Paterno, who did not join the  Philippine Revolution of 1896 but was appointed one of the framers of Aguinaldo's  short-lived Malolos Constitution, has shuttled  between Manila and Biyak-na-Bato; the rocky mountainous town of Biyak na Bato in Bulakan  province was where the revolutionary forces retreated to after a series of defeats following the demoralization of many Katipuneros as news  of Aguinaldo's power grab from, and execution, of the instigator of the Revolution, Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, spread in  mid-1897.

Photo credit:

Sunday, November 13, 2011


1899 - Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, begins his northward retreat to escape the enemy invading United States forces, two days after a council of war he attended decided to continue the  Philippine-American War (1899 - 1914) through guerilla tactics;  Gen. Aguinaldo leaves Bayombong, Pangasinan with his staff and a forced commanded by one of the youngest generals of the Republic, Gen. Gregorio del Pilar; Aguinaldo, the leader of the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, was conned into thinking that the North Americans were his allies against colonial Spain, thus stupidly allowing  the free entry of the Bald Eagle soldiers into the archipelago that, in turn permitted the future enemy to position themselves for the  infamous Mock Battle of  Manila that falsely showed to the world that it were the Americans, instead of the Filipinos, that defeated the colonial Spaniards in the Southeast Asian archipelago.

1936 - The Institute of National Language is established, created through Act 184 of the National Assembly, during the so-called Commonwealth Period of the American colonial rule of the Philippines;  Act No. 184 bestows the Institute with the responsibility of studying the various Filipino languages in the task to evolve and develop a common national language; more about  a year later, the Institute will recommend Tagalog as the basis of the Southeast Asian country's national language. 

Photo credit:

Saturday, November 12, 2011


1899 - One year and nine months into the   Philippine-American War (1899 - 1914), a council of war held in  Bayombong, Pangasinan decides to continue the  war for freedom through guerilla warfare as Tarlac, the capital of the northward retreating  First Philippine Republic, falls into the hands of  the invading United States forces; attended by  Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and other military leaders,  the decision to push through with the war  against the imperialist Bald Eagle nation came  exactly a month after the invaders began a  major offensive in its war of invasion against the fledgling republic of the Southeast Asian nation.

1943 - The terms of office of the President and  Vice-President of the American colony, the  Philippines, is extended when the United States Congress passes Resolution No. 25; the joint  resolution, which also declares that the  extension will last until such time the U.S. president shall have restored constitutional  processes and normal government functions of  its colony, comes amidst the Japanese Occupation of the American colony in the Southeast Asian region during World War II.

Friday, November 11, 2011


1896 - The Battle of Binakayan is won by Katipuneros, Filipino  revolutionaries, during the Philippine Revolution against  Spain; the battle that occurred in Cavite and took many lives but is said to be one  of the biggest wins of the Filipinos, would be described by  Gen. Santiago Alvarez in his memoirs as, for a time, clearly a Spanish victory, with the fort taken over and many Katipuneros dead until the Spaniards committed the tactical error of not  further proceeding to Dalahikan where they could have probably launched a  victorious, surprise attack; the Battle of Binakayan, which would be considered the earliest major victory of the Filipinos during the Himagsikan, was eventually won when the defenders of Dalahikan  moved to attack the enemy and recover the forts earlier seized.

Thursday, November 10, 2011


1900- One year and nine months into the Philippine-American War (1899 - 1914), Lt. Colonel John S. Mallory of the invading United States forces serving as military attache in Peking reports to the U.S. War Secretary about the arms shipment ready to be delivered to the Philippines; the shipment contains the following: 5,000 rifles, 2,000 revolvers, 3,000 swords, 50,000 rounds of ammunition, thirty guns, four tons of gunpowder, and 100 bombs; the Fil-Am War began  in February 1899 when the imperialist Bald Eagle President William McKinley  secretly ordered his regimental military commanders to instigate hostilities with the Filipinos in his bid to push the US Senate into approving invasion/annexation of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011


1892 - Filipino revolutionary Ramon Basa is  initiated into the Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK), a secret  society aimed at attaining Philippine  independence against Spain; Basa will become  the second president of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan after  Deodato Arellano and preceding Supremo Andres  Bonifacio y de Castro who will serve as the  driving soul of the Revolution launched in August 1896 after its  premature discovery by Spanish colonial  authorities until he was deposed and executed by the camp of Emilio F. Aguinaldo in May 1897.

Hen. Mariano Llanera
1855 - Mariano Llanera, future barrio chief and municipal captain, mason, patriot and general  in the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is born in Aliaga, Nueva Ecija; Llanera, who would fight in the provinces of Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija, would adopt a revolutionary black flat with a white letter K on the left and a white skull atop a cross of two bones, the design of which was based from the initiation rites of the secret-society-later-turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK), and  which Supremo Andres Bonifacio would refer to as "Bungo ni Llanera" or Llanera's Skull; Llanera,  would also be known for leading the "first cry of Nueva Ecija" in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija  on September 2, 1896, a victorious attack on the local Spanish government that signaled the participation of the province in the Revolution.

1937 - Tagalog is recommended to be the basis  of the national language of the Philippines by  the Institute of National Language during the  colonial American period; the Institute, created  a year earlier through Act No. 184 by the  National Assembly, was given the responsibility  of studying the various languages of the  Southeast Asian country with the aim of  evolving and developing a common national  language; less than a month after the Institute  submitted the recommendation, President  Manuel L. Quezon would proclaim  Tagalog-based Filipino as the national language  of the Philippines. 

Photo credit:

Tuesday, November 8, 2011


1762 - British colonial forces capture Pasig a  month after the surrender of Manila by the  Spaniards led by acting governor-general Archbishop Manual Antonio Rojo; some four  days earlier, the British authorities that at that  point occupied Manila and Cavite, which lie  along the harbor, issued a proclamation  granting Filipino residents with rights enjoyed  by other subjects of the British crown; Britain's  occupation came amidst the Seven Years War  between the two European powers.

1899 - San Jose, Nueva Ecija is captured by enemy American invaders apparently without resistance  nine months into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the capture comes nearly a month after the imperialist United States forces started a major offensive that involved the influx of troops in  the bid to invade the Southeast Asian archipelago, with Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy going into hiding and further retreating northwards; the Filipino freedom fighters in much of Luzon and also the Visayas and Mindanao islands would later stage guerilla-style defense of their motherland against the imperialist Bald Eagle for well over a decade.   

Photo credit:

Monday, November 7, 2011


Aniceto Lacson y Ledesma
1898 - The provisional revolutionary  government in Negros is established and a constitution promulgated a day after  Spanish  capitulation to Filipino revolutionaries in Negros  province during the Philippine Revolution; to be referred to as the  Cantonal Republic of Negros, supposedly subordinate to the central government of the  Revolutionary/First Philippine  Republic, it has the following set of elected officers: Aniceto Lacson, President; Juan Araneta,  Secretary of War; Eusebio Luzuriaga, Secretary  of Treasury; Simeon Lizares, Secretary of  Interior; Nicolas Golez, Secretary of Fomento;  Antonio Jayme, Secretary of Justice; Agustin  Amenablar, Secretary of Agriculture and  Commerce; and Melecio Severino, Executive  Secretary; the Spanish capitulation and succeeding inauguration of the Negros Republic  and its constitution came came more than two  months  following the infamous Mock Battle of  Manila wherein the emerging  imperialist nation, the United States, and colonial Spain falsely  made it appear before the world  that it is the  Americans, and not the  Filipino, who defeated the Spanish colonizers. 

1751 - Some two centuries into the Spanish  colonial rule, an auditor of the Royal Audiencia  of the colony, the Philippine Islands,
Don Pedro Enriquez,
reports on  his pacification efforts for the villages of  Taguig, Hagonoy, Paranaque, Bacoor, and  Cavite Viejo; the colonial villages had staged  revolts owing to onerous agrarian conditions but a general  pardon has been proclaimed, along with the  promise of hearing the natives' complaints and  the carrying out of justice.

Sunday, November 6, 2011


1574 - Rajah Lakandula, King of Tondo, in Luzon island, the Philippines, along with his uncle Rajah Soliman, leads an uprising protesting the Spaniards' ill treatment of his compatriots during the early decades of Spanish colonization of the southeast Asian archipelago; three years earlier, Lakandula, who would be the last of the Filipino state kings, declared himself friend of Spain along with two fellow chieftains Laya and Sulayman following the Second Conquest of Manila by the colonizing pale-skinned Europeans; Lakandula would become an active early Spanish collaborator, to be used by Spain in pacifying the last independent settlements in the island of Luzon, including  Lubao and Betis and in helping defend  the Spanish settlements against the invasion of Chinese pirates led by Warlord Limahong.

 1898 - Colonial Spanish forces in Negros Occidental capitulate to the Filipino revolutionaries during  a formal turnover of Bacolod city to the natives held in the house of revolutionary Jose Luzuriaga during the tail end of the Philippine Revolution;  the capitulation came more than two months  following the infamous Mock Battle of Manila wherein emerging  imperialist nation, the United States,  and colonial  Spain falsely showed to the world  that it is the Americans, and not the  Filipino, who defeated the  Spanish colonizers  in the Southeast Asian  archipelago; following the local Spanish surrender, the people of  Negros led by prominent residents will later set up a provisional federal-style government called Republica de Negros that supposedly recognizes the authority of the central government of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo. 

Photo credit:

Saturday, November 5, 2011


1805 - Colonial Philippines' governor for  Zamboanga, Francisco Bayot, concludes a treaty  of peace with Mohamad Ali Mudin, sultan of  Jolo, during the Spanish era; the treaty, which  was in keeping with the policy of colonial  propriety governor Gonzalez Aguilar of  delegating warfare with the Moros [and  agreements] to the provincial authorities under  the colonial central government's aid and  directions, involved the agreement that the sultan prohibits foreigners from residing in his  dominions without prior consent of the Spanish  government, and in case of war, to close his  port to the enemies of Spain.

1897 - Filipino revolutionary head Emilio Aguinaldo authorizes Pedro A. Paterno "to enter into harmonious relations" with the colonial Spanish government they were supposed to be fighting against during the Philippine Revolution; the development comes following the retreat of Aguinaldo's generals to the mountainous town of Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan as Cavite, where  his "so-called central  government" was based, succumbed to the Spanish forces as the revolutionary fervor was smothered by Aguinaldo's power grab against, and execution, of revolutionary leader Andres Bonifacio in May that year, with "many  [revolutionaries] from Manila, Laguna and Batangas, who were fighting for the province (of Cavite), [having been] demoralized"; Paterno, who was a "purely volunteer mediator," without official standing and who had offered himself to the olonial Gov-Gen. Primo de Rivera as negotiator, was bestowed with full powers by Aguinaldo with " to determine, fix, and receive the total sum of funds or values which the Spanish government will grant us."

Photo credit:

Friday, November 4, 2011


1762 - Colonial British authorities proclaim  the granting  to Filipino residents of Manila of the  rights enjoyed by their other subjects, a month after the Spanish colonial authorities surrendered Manila to the British invaders; the  rights granted on the condition that Filipinos  renounce allegiance to Spanish colonial Simon  de Anda y Salazar include the free exercise of  Catholic Christianity and exemption from  tribute and forced labor;  two days earlier,  Dawsone Drake became the British governor of  the colony Philippines nearly a month after the  British forces successfully attacked and invaded  the Manila harbor areas of Tondo (Manila) and  Cavite as a development in the Seven Years War between Spain and Britain.

1841 - Filipino religious leader and martyr  Apolinario de la Cruz, also known as Hermano  Pule,  is executed by colonial Spanish  authorities; de la Cruz , whose dream of being  a priest was frustrated by the discriminatory  colonial policies of the Spanish friars, co-founded the brotherhood Cofradia de San  Jose that was initially a Catholic religious  brotherhood that swelled in membership; de la  Cruz's execution came following a failed  rebellion as the religious group's reaction to  friar attempts to suppress the Cofradia. 

1901 - One year and none months into the  bloody and protracted Philippine-American War  (1899-1914), the Bald Eagle invaders pass  Sedition Law, Act No. 292 through the  imperialist body Philippine Commission; the  law, passed about half a year before the imperialist  United States President Theodore  Roosevelt will falsely  announce the official  end of the  "insurrection," despite ongoing guerrilla  resistance warfare against the enemy American  invasion, was made in the bid to suppress agitations for independence in the still-limited  areas of American control  in the Southeast  Asian archipelago.

Photo credit:

Thursday, November 3, 2011


1900 - One year and nine months into the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), the  imperialist invading Americans close the port of  Boac for commerce; the Boac port was the  exclusive port utilized in the Marinduque area  in the Visayan Islands during the colonial  Spanish era.

1762 - The Pangasinan Revolt led by Juan de la  Cruz Palaris erupts in Binalatongan during the  Spanish colonial rule of the Philippines; the uprising led by Palaris (born as Pantaleon Perez), which was  the second revolt in the province of Pangasinan  during the Spanish era that coincided with the  British invasion of the Philippines, would spread  to the towns of Mangaldan, Calasiao, Dagupan, San  Jacinto, Sta. Barbara, Manaoag, Bayambang,  Malasiqui, and Paniqui; however, with the  signing of the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven-Year War between Spain and Britain,  along with the successful suppression of the  Silang Revolt in Ilocos, the colonial Spanish  authorities were able to concentrate on  Pangasinan, eventually quashing the rebellion  and soon executing the brave, anti-colonial Palaris by hanging.

Photo credit:

Wednesday, November 2, 2011


1762 - Dawsonne Drake becomes the British  Governor of the colony Philippines during the  brief period of (limited) occupation by the  British forces; less than a month earlier, the  City of Manila was surrendered by Archbishop  Manuel Antonio Rojo, acting governor-general  for the Spanish crown, following the successful  British attack of the seat of Spain's colonial  administration, along with the adjacent Cavite province that falls along the Manila Bay area, as part of the Seven Years War between  the two European powers.

Patriot Julio Nakpil y Putco

1896 - Filipino revolutionist, musician, and  composer Julio Nakpil y Putco flees Manila to  meet with the secret society-turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) Supremo Andres Bonifacio  in Balara, Marikina more than two months  following the outbreak of the Philippine  Revolution against Spain; Nakpil would be highly  trusted by the Supremo who would soon assign  him sensitive tasks such as  resupplying  Katipuneros in Cavite with ammunitions  through the nighttime transfer of 30-40 copper  boxes of gunpowder extracted from the enemy  colonial arsenal in Binangonan in Morong to  Tejeros in Cavite from December 1896-March  1897 as part of his responsibilities to co-command the revolutionists north of Manila; Nakpil, who would later marry Katipunan  "Lakambini" Gregorio de Jesus, who will be widowed following the tragic unseating (from  revolutionary leadership), kangaroo court trial,  and murder by execution of Bonifacio, will have  eight children by the Lakambini; the revolutionary  is the composer of the lyrics for the Katipunan national anthem  "Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan" and will later  produce revolution-inspired patriotic musical  works such as  "Pasig Pantaynin" (1897),  "Kabanatuan (composed in honor of Gen. Luna),  and Salve Patria (1903).

1922 - Gen. Ananias Diokno y Noblejas, Filipino  freedom-fighter during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), dies in  his farm in Arayat, Pampanga; Diokno became  the secretary of war of the regional revolutionary government organized by  prominent families in Batangas following the outbreak of the Revolution in 1896 and would  later be appointed by fledgling Philippine Republic President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy as  politico-military governor of Capiz in Visayas, a  move that would invite dissension as Visayan  revolutionists instead wanted to take orders  from the separate federal  Republic of Visayas President Roque  Lopez; during the bloody and protracted  Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Diokno would  heroically fight the invading enemy United  States forces through guerilla warfare, refusing  to surrender to the Bald Eagles until the ambush  of his forces, and even patriotically refusing to  accept the American offer to head the colonial  Bureau of Agriculture

Photo credit:

Tuesday, November 1, 2011


Raja Lapu-Lapu slays Ferdinand Magellan
1565 - Filipino natives in the island of Mactan continue to defy early Spanish attempts at colonization by raiding the settlements and  burning over 20 houses put up by the Legazpi  expedition under Master-of-Camp Mateo del  Saez and Captain Martin de Goiti; earlier in  1521,  Lapu-Lapu led Mactan people in subduing the first Spanish expedition to the Southeast  Asian archipelago led by explorer Ferdinand  Magellan in the Battle of Mactan; in 1542, another Spanish expedition  to the Philippines led by Ruly Lopez de  Villalobos, was begun from Navidad, Mexico  with the official aims of colonizing the Western  Islands, establishing trade relations, preaching  Christianity, and avoiding the Moluccas islands  believed to belong to Portugal under the Treaty  of Tordesillas.

1897 - The Biak-na-Bato revolutionary republic  is established upon the retreat of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo's generals to the mountainous town in  Bulakan amidst the revolutionaries' demoralization following the power grab against,  kangaroo court trial, and the tragic execution, of Katipunan  Supremo Andres Bonifacio y Bonifacio during the Philippine Revolution against Spain; the revolution began by the Supremo through the secret society-turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) was  replaced by Aguinaldo's "so-called central government"  based in Cavite; while the  Biak-na-Bato's constitution declares the  revolutionary aim to be "the separation of the  Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and its  formation into an independent state,"  Aguinaldo and company would soon forge a  peace pact with the supposed enemy Spaniards.

Photo credit: