Tuesday, January 31, 2012


Iloilo, 1899, during the
 enemy American invasion
1900 - Pio Claveria, Military Government delegate of Iloilo province, Philippines warns the chief of Tigbauan town that if he and other residents do not retract their recognition of the sovereignty of the enemy imperialist Americans, they will be punished in accordance with "a most summary trial and execution as traitors to the country"; the enemy Bald Eagle forces under Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Miller began invading Iloilo on February 11, 1899, with the local Filipino freedom fighters being led by Gen. Martin Delgado and Teresa Magbanua y Ferraris; the written warning that came nearly a year in the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) adds that:
'"As the government which the invaders are endeavoring to establish is always provisional, if all the inhabitants of this province are true Filipinos, they can easily and simply answer that we are subject to the will of the Honorable President Senor Emilio Aguinaldo, whom we follow and recognize in this new born Republic as the President of the Nation."'

1946 -  Maria Paz Mendoza-Guazon, Filipina suffragist, doctor, educator,  scientist, writer, social reformer, feminist, philanthropist and civic  leader, is appointed the first female member of the Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines,  the university established by the colonial United States government in 1908, mid-way into the protracted and bloody Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Mendoza-Guazon is also the first Filipina to acquire a high school diploma, the first woman graduate of the UP College of Medicine (1912), and first woman to receive the degree of Doctor of Tropical Medicine; in the 1920s, Mendoza-Guazon also figured in the 1920s struggle for women's suffrage during the American colonial period.

Raw image credits:
http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/thewarinthevisayas.htm (raw photo of Iloilo)

Monday, January 30, 2012


Katipunan membership rites of blood compact

1894 - Andres Bonifacio  y de Castro, co-founder  and officer of the underground society  aiming to liberate the Philippines  from Spanish colonial yoke, the  Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) , declares that the  organization's administrative judges should strictly adhere to and  implement regulations in the bid to  enlarge KKK membership; with  increasing Katipunan membership, Bonifacio  has thought of classifying the members  into the three grades of Katipun,  Kawal, and Bayani; the passwords for the initiation rites would be "Anak ng Bayan," "Gomburza," and "Rizal"; in 1896, the Katipunan would be officially discovered by Spanish colonial authorities and by August, Bonifacio, then the Supremo of the Katipunan, would launch the Philippine Revolution. 

Cayetano Arellano y Lonzon, Collaborator with  imperialist U.S.
1899 - Cayetano Arellano y Lonzon, delegate to the first Philippine (Malolos) Congress, traitorously collaborates with the invading imperialist United States as he accepts appointment as president of a reorganized colonial Supreme Court less than a year into the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and while the leader of the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic, Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, was on the run northwards as the vile and mighty Americans try to capture the latter; on the same day, collaborator Arellano is asked by the Bald Eagle invaders to prepare plans for organizing (colonial) municipal governments in the Philippines.

Photo credits:



Sunday, January 29, 2012


Old Nakpil-Bautista house

1865 - Francisco Nakpil y Garcia, future Filipino reformist and brother of future revolutionary, musician and composer Julio Nakpil, is born during the Spanish colonial period; Francisco will become an expert silversmith like all of his three brothers and in 1863, will join the reorganized La Liga Filipina, a bolder reformist civic society aiming to unite the archipelago in one strong body for the mutual protection of Filipinos; despite the dissolution of the La Liga in the same year with the formation of the more radical  Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) by the group of Andres Bonifacio, Julio's friend, Francisco will instead help form the more less radical faction, the Cuerpo de Compromisarios, that will continue supporting the Propaganda Movement in Spain; with the discovery of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary government Katipunan in 1896 and the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution, Francisco will be arrested by the Spaniards and incarcerated at the barracks to the Veteran Guards; a consistent conservative, Francisco Nakpil will become an early collaborator of the imperialist Americans, becoming a member of the arrangement committee organized by Pedro Paterno in July 1900 even as the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) will continue to rage on.

1897 - Prominent Filipino deportees in Hong Kong, Jose Ma. Basa, A.G. Medina, and Doroteo Cortes, prepare a manifesto exposing the grievances of the Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government, and submit petitions for the armed intercession of Germany, United States, United Kingdom, and France; led by Cortes, the group and other Filipino exiles have supposedly been acting on behalf of the nationalist Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) movement in the Philippines, soliciting funds mostly used to negotiate with Japan for political, military and financial assistance in anticipation of the outbreak of Revolution against Spain; as revealed by colonial Spanish investigations, "The plan was that while Andres Bonifacio [Katipunan Supremo] was busy recruiting people for the general uprising, Doroteo Cortes should carry on the necessary negotiations with Japan."

Photo art: Jesusa Bernardo

Raw photo credit: http://bahaynakpil.org/index.php/virtual-gallery-i-photos-taken-by-boldy-tapales/

Saturday, January 28, 2012


1861 - Julian Felipe, future Filipino revolutionary and composer of the music of the Philippine national anthem, is born in Cavite during the Spanish colonial period; Felipe would be lucky to escape execution by the Spaniards when he was arrested along with those who will be dubbed the "Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite; he would later be tasked by revolutionary leader Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo with composing a "more stirring and majestic" march and will come up with the "Marcha Nacional Filipina," which will be applauded by Aguinaldo and the rest of the Filipino generals present; the following day on June 12, 1896 during the proclamation of Philippine Independence, the new national hymn. Felipe's masterpiece, would be played by the San Francisco de Malabon Band as the Philippine flag sewn by Marcella Agoncillo is hoisted during that historic occasion; about a year later, lyrics would be added to the march--Jose Palma's poem in the Spanish language entitled "Filipina."

1948 - Manuel A. Roxas, President of the former American colony the Philippines, grants amnesty to everyone accused of collaboration with the Japanese during World War II; the beneficiaries include President Jose P. Laurel, and his entire cabinet that served during the Japanese Occupation period; President Laurel had earlier been imprisoned by the American colonial authorities following the defeat of the Japanese forces, with his family's fortunes drying up because of the legal fees incurred in his defense; the amnesty proclamation comes one year and one day after the American-sponsored Philippine Congress held its first post-World War II session, more than nine months after Roxas' election into the presidency, and more than five months after the imperialist United States granted the Philippines political  "independence" to the Philippines through the American Congress' Joint Resolution No. 93.

Photo credits:

Friday, January 27, 2012


1763 - P1,304,147 silver pesos from  the docked patache "Filipino" that came from Mexico is ordered  transferred to Pampanga by Simon de Anda, self-declared Captain-General of the Royal Audiencia and Spanish colonial Governor-General who fled to Bulacan province following British Occupation of Manila and Cavite (and Sulu); some three and a half months  earlier, de Anda was forced to flee Intramuros, Manila in a banca towards Bulacan province as Acting Governor-General Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo surrendered Manila to Britain in order to avoid further bloodshed; from his Bacolor, Pampanga base in  Central Luzon, de Anda has engaged in sporadic harassment of the British colonial government (while suppressing revolts by the Filipino natives) by fielding men that include convicts they had freed, Indios such as Kapampangans and by hanging the Chinese in town on suspicions that they worked for the British; the jurisdiction of the colony the Philippines is under the general jurisdiction of the Spanish viceroy in Mexico.

1867 - Juan Crisostomo Soto, future Filipino poet, dramatist, editor, writer, newspaperman and revolutionary,  is born in in Pampanga during the Spanish colonial period; to be referred to as the "Father of Pampango Literature," he will write numerous lyrical poems, humorous plays, historical drams, fiery editorials, and philosophical essays and will also translate into the Pampango dialect Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo and Spanish version of old European plays; he will write no less than 50  zarsuwelas and plays, including the 1901 "Alang Dios" (There is no God); he will be also noted for being a Katipunero who will join the Philippine Revolution in 1896 and who will figure in a number of battles against the  imperialist United States forces during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914).

Photo credit: http://tabonwoman.blogspot.com/2009/05/spanish-period.html

Thursday, January 26, 2012


SpanishWar ensign, 1785-1843
 & National Flag,1843-1873-1931

1821 - Spanish colonial Governor-General for the Philippines, Mariano Fernandez de Folguerax, along with Archbishop Luis de Arrejola, issue  instructions for the election of Filipino deputies to the Spanish Cortes; earlier, before Mexican independence in 1821, the Philippine archipelago was directly governed from Madrid and the Spanish Cortes of 1810  had declared Spain's overseas provinces to be integral parts of the monarchy, thereby allowing for Philippine representatives; Filipino representation to the Spanish Cortes would only last for three constitutional periods because in 1837, the Liberal Cortes would decree rule of the overseas provinces by special laws; beginning in 1863, the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico would be ruled by governors-general but unlike in Cuba and Puerto Rico, which are Spanish colonies where majority of the population either are Spanish or has Spanish descent, Philippine representation to the Cortes would never be restored and  other rights would even be denied the Filipinos.

Image credit:  Wikipedia

Wednesday, January 25, 2012


1900 - The southern town of San Pablo, Laguna is captured by the imperialist American forces some 11 months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and three months after the invading Bald Eagle nation ordered  major military offensive; United States  Brigadier General Theodore Schwan's column some three months earlier began advancing south of Manila and in the march to invade Laguna province, San Pablo, as well as  San Rosario and San Diego were along the line of march that seemed deserted; beginning December 1899 when the enemy's 39th Infantry arrived in Manila and moved to the Laguna de Bay vicinity under Schwan until March 1901, "there was almost continuous fighting and scouting," with the freedom-fighting Filipinos suffering heavy losses.
Pedro B. Abad Santos
1942 - Philippine-American War (1899-1914) veteran, lawyer, doctor, and socialist Filipino patriot Pedro Abad Santos y Basco, along with other top  leaders of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas, is arrested by the Japanese secret police during World War II; also called Don Perico, Abad Santos is the brother of Jose Abad Santos, Justice Secretary of the American-colonial-era "Commonwealth" President Manuel L. Quezon who is said to have greatly admired his "courage, conviction and intelligent ways of leading [the] socialist movement"; Don Perico would be released by the Japanese on account of his failing health and upon recovery, would seek the advice of President Jose P. Laurel who would then refuse to surrender him to the Japanese; Abad Santos would subsequently join his protege Luis Taruc and other HUKBALAHAP  (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon) guerrillas in fighting the Japanese.

Raw Photo Credits:


Tuesday, January 24, 2012


1868 - Future Filipino priest and martyr patriot Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario, along with eight other student leaders, leads a student demonstration demanding that the newly appointed Mayor be removed during the Spanish colonial times; Zamora would be punished with two months of confinement in his quarters, an experience that would not mute his aspirations to voice out what he deems wrong in the clergy; in his future reformist advocacy, particularly against the discrimination of Filipinos in the clergy, and the secularization of the church, Zamora and fellow native priests Jose G. Burgos and Mariano G. Gomez would be falsely implicated in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny and be executed by garrote on February 17, 1872.

Hen. Francisco S. Makabulos
1897 - "The Cry of Tarlac" is raised in Tarlac, signaling the spread of the Philippine Revolution in the Central Luzon province, five months after  revolutionary leader Andres C. Bonifacio led the first major offensive in the Filipinos' fight for independence from Spanish colonial rule; the emergence and spread of revolutionary flame in the province is attributed to then local official Francisco Makabulos y Soliman who formed a chapter of the underground- society-turned-revolutionary- government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) in La Paz town in 1895 and established KKK branches in the towns of Paniqui, Tarlac, Concepcion, and Victoria with the help of Valentin Diaz, co-founder of the Katipunan; Makabulos is one of the first to rally to Generalissimo Bonifacio's call to end Spanish rule  in the Philippines, attacking and capturing La Paz on this day; Makabulos would later be appointed by Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo as one of the brigadier generals of the Central Luzon area but, in disagreement with the Pact of Biak na Bato, would establish the Makabulos Revolutionary Committee that would pass the Constitution of Makabulos.

Photo credits:


Monday, January 23, 2012


1899 - The First Philippine Republic is inaugurated in Barasoain Church,  Malolos, Bulacan with Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo as President two days after  the ratification of the Constitution but less two weeks before the outbreak of the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914);  pressured to seek international recognition of his Declaration of Independence from Spain by the imperialist designs of the emerging new enemy, the United States, Aguinaldo convened the Malolos Congress in September 1898 for the purpose of framing a constitution and, upon advice by the pro-charter group (opposed to the ideas of the Prime Minister Apolinario M. Mabini) led by Pedro Paterno y Ignacio and Felipe G. Calderon, supposedly to strengthen the assertion of freedom by the country that was as yet not recognized by other nations, and which provided for a republican government marked by three separate branches: unicameral Legislature, Judiciary, and the Executive branch; the inauguration ceremonies for Aguinaldo's republic, dubbed Asia's first republic, (also called the Malolos Republic), along with the revolutionary Malolos Congress, were marked by the reading of the Constitution, proclamation of the Republic, Aguinaldo's proclamation as elected President and speeches by Aguinaldo and Congress president Paterno; ironically, the pro-charter group stalwarts Paterno and Calderon would be one of the early pro-American collaborators that would soon abandon Aguinaldo's republican government and openly campaign for the Philippine annexation to the imperialist Bald Eagle nation; the First Philippine Republic is said to be the culmination of the reformist struggle of the Propaganda movement and the next level of Filipino struggle, the Philippine Revolution of 1896 led by  Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) Supremo Andres C. Bonifacio whom Aguinaldo later deposed via the Tejeros Convention and ordered executed in 1897.

1930 - Pio C. del Pilar, Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution,  writes about the genuine patriotism of Gen. Macario Sakay whom the  imperialist Bald Eagle nation dubbed a "bandit", treacherously captured, and  executed in 1907 by the vile Americans; Pio del Pilar, infamous for having betrayed Katipunan  Supremo Andres C. Bonifacio and even influenced Emilio F. Aguinaldo's decision to execute the Supremo, lauds Sakay was a "true patriot who spread the seeds of the Katipunan to win the independence of the Philippines. He was one of those who went from town to town, winning the people over to the cause of the Katipunan, and thus, kept  alive the spirit of resistance to the enemies... Sakay may be called a tulisan or bandit by the Americans... But before God, Country, and Truth, he was a true son of the Country whom his fellow countrymen must revere for all the times"; Pio del Pilar's testimony of sorts is contained in a letter he sent to historian and biographer Jose P. Santos

Photo credit:


Sunday, January 22, 2012


Masonry, Philippines, 1890s

1895 - Filipino mason and future Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini  y Maranan informs  fellow mason and reform propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar that an order has been promulgated that prohibits Masonry, orders the closure of all Masonic lodges, and imposes severe penalties in the Spanish colony, the Philippines; earlier in 1892, Filipino masons began playing cat and mouse with the authorities who kept a close watch on Masonic lodges following the arrest of prominent Mason and friar critic Jose Rizal; the persecutions resumed in 1894 and assumed terror-level in 1895 when the arrests and deportations of Masons have become a daily occurrence; the supposed prohibition comes less than two years before the outbreak of  the Philippine Revolution led led by the Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK), a secret organization aiming for Philippine liberation from Spanish rule and which is marked by a mix of both Masonic and indigenous socio-religious concepts.

Vicente  Manansala y Silva
1910 - Future great Filipino cubist  painter and illustrator, Vicente Manansala y Silva, is born in Macabebe, Pampanga during the American colonial  period; a high school dropout, he would enter the School of Fine arts at the  University of the Philippines where he would be handled by famous artists including  Fernando and Pablo Amorsolo, Vicente Rivera y Mir and Ramon  Peralta; he would work  as an illustrator for periodicals before beginning to  gain national recognition with his "Pounding Rice" entry that would bag the top prize at a national exhibition; following an art fellowship to Canada  and, later, France, he would go on to perfect his craft, including in the  field of stain glass and would be credited for developing transparent cubism; his more famous works would make it to postcards included 'daily scenes' of Filipino life, such as “Magbabalot” (1973), “Planting Rice” (1980), “Tiangge” (1980), “Carollers” (1980), “Vendors” (1978), and “Give Us This Day” (1977); Manansala received a number of prestigious awards,  including the 1963 Republic Cultural Heritage Award and, posthumously, the  National Artist Award in 1981, with his art to be described by President Ferdinand  E. Marcos as "uniquely Philippine" while being "as universal as the art  of the early titans Luna, Hidalgo, and  de la Rosa."

Photo credits:


Saturday, January 21, 2012


First Philippine Constitution is signed
1899 - The Malolos Constitution, the charter of the fledgling Philippine  Republic under Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, is proclaimed to be in effect more than seven months after the declaration of independence and less than two weeks before the bloody Filipino-American War (1899-1914); considered Asia's first republican constitution, the Malolos Charter was framed by the  revolutionary Malolos Congress that was also responsible for ratifying  Philippine Independence on September 29, 1899; it is said tht despite the  elitist background of the Malolos Congress delegates who were mostly appointed and who almost exclusively came from the politico-economic elite class, the resulting  Malolos Charter embodied democratic and pluralist ideals as would be described  by American scholar Joseph R. Hayden as a "a free expression of the type of  the state [that was] democratic and  liberal"; the Constitucion Politica (Malolos Constitution), based or inspired by different constitutions including those of Belgium, France,  the United States, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Brazil, was principally authored by Felipe G. Calderon who was under the influence of early American collaborator Cayetano L. Arellano.

1899 - Fledgling Philippine Republic President Emilio F. Aguinaldo orders the Filipino soldiers in Intramuros to deceptively remain friendly with imperialist United States soldiers in anticipation of looming hostilities, less than two weeks before the outbreak of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) ; earlier conned into believing the imperialist Bald Eagle nation was Filipinos' ally against colonial Spain, Aguinaldo stupidly allowed the free entry of future enemy American soldiers into the Southeast Asian archipelago, enabling the U.S. to stage the infamous Mock Battle of Manila and to position their troops for the eventual invasion of the Philippines;  the imperialist Americans had begun to lay down the framework of colonial civil government in Manila in August 1898 a few days after the Peace Protocol and the corollary Mock Battle that struck the most reprehensible deal of 'ceding' the Philippines despite the fact that the Filipino revolutionaries had already wrested control of practically the entire archipelago from the former Spanish masters. 

Photo credit:

(Diorama found in Pulilan, Bulacan) http://flickr.com/photos/coolaux/624883734/

Friday, January 20, 2012


Graciano Lopez Jaena

1896 - Filipino orator, patriot, and propagandist Graciano Lopez y Jaena dies of tuberculosis in Barcelona, Spain several months before the outbreak of  the Philippine Revolution; Jaena and Jose M. Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar formed the great triumvirate of reformist Propaganda movement that  aimed to awaken Spain as to the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to make for a closer and more equal association of the archipelago and  supposed motherland, Spain; Jaena's contributions to the Propaganda movement included his satire "Fray  Butod" (Big Bellied Friar), articles  advocating liberal politicies in a number of newspapers (including El  Liberal, Bandera Social de Madrid, La Publicidad, El Pueblo Soberano, and El Deluvio of Barcelona, España en Filipinas, Revista  Economica de  la   Camara de Comercio de España en Londres), and his early editorship of  the Madrid-based La Solidaridad, the propaganda movement's official organ, and his warmly received 1883 speech in Madrid wherein he declared his hope that all Spanish territories be accorded equal treatment, attention  and consideration under the law. 
1900 - Sorsogon falls to the enemy Bald Eagle nation forces in spite of the gallant resistance of Filipino freedom fighters under Col. Amado Airan nearly a year into the bloody Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the objective of the invasion by the imperialist United States forces in the Bicol region where Sorsogon is a part of is "to render a sufficient quantity of hemp available for the American market as soon as possible," prompting Gen. Otis to order Brig. Gen. William A. Kobbe to take over the Sorsogon and Albay hemp ports of Bulan, Tabaco, Donsol, and Legaspi and establish colonial civil government and customs service; the vile  Bald Eagle invaders would not have it easy, however, as the Filipino forces under Gen. Vito L. Belarmino and also under the controversial Jose Ignacio Paua, would immediately engage in a heroically defiant and protracted guerrilla warfare, prompting Kobbe to remark how the "skillfull" resistance of the natives had "exceeded in stubbornness and aggressiveness any fighting since the outbreak in February 1899." Paua (or Pawa/Intsik Pawa) was the Chinese -Filipino responsible for stabbing Katipunan Supremo Andres C. Bonifacio on  'dead-or-alive' orders of power-grabbing Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo some 2 1/2 years earlier during the Revolution against Spain. 

Photo art: Jesusa Bernardo

Thursday, January 19, 2012


1910 - Filipino patriots and journalists Teodoro M. Kalaw and Martin Ocampo are meted out prison sentences by Judge J.C. Jenkins after being found "guilty" of libel in connection with the "Aves de Rapina" editorial in El Renacimiento that attacked the corruption of Interior Secretary Dean C. Worcester during the American colonial period; Jenkins' decision would be merely affirmed by the colonial Philippine and United States Supreme court although Gov-Gen. F. B. Harrison would later pardon Ocampo and Kalaw, publisher and editor respectively of the fiery El Renacimiento; their  October 30, 1908 "Aves de  Rapina" editorial described Worcester as corrupt and with "the characteristics of the vulture, the owl, and the vampire," owing to the supposed use of public money to finance gold prospecting  Benguet  mountains for personal gains.

1938 - Pedro Guevara, former revolutionary,  an early American collaborator, and
pro-independence Filipino senator during the American colonial period, dies of heart attack while defending a case; Guevara was aide-camp to Gen. Juan K. Cailles during the Philippine Revolution against Spain but similar to Cailles, joined the new enemy colonial government and became a collaborator during the early days of American Occupation even as the flames of the protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) dragged on; he became a second lieutenant of the colonial Philippine Constabulary and later on entered politics, becoming congressman from Laguna's second district before being elected as senator and later serving as Filipino resident commissioner to the United States in which capacity he is said to have advocated for independence; upon his retirement in politics in 1935, Guevara resumed private law practice and served as business executive of a mining firm.

Photo art: Jesusa Bernardo

Original Photo Credits:

Wednesday, January 18, 2012


Marker in Fort Santiago Manila, next to the departure point 
of  Spanish colonial Gov.-Gen. Simón de Anda.

1763 - British Capt. Jeremeigh Sleigh (Slay) leads a force of 400 British, 300 Malabar Negroes, and 2,000 Chinese allies that leave Manila and head for Bulacan where Spanish colonial resistance led by Simon de Anda y Salazar is based, more than three months after the Spaniards surrendered Manila, capital of the colony the Philippines, to the British during the Seven Years War; on October 5 the past year, Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo surrendered Manila to the British invaders while Gov.-Gen. de Anda fled on a banca to Bulacan and proclaimed himself Captain-General of the Real Audencia; from Bulacan, de Anda engaged in attempts to harrass the  British government (while suppressing revolts by the natives) by fielding  men that include convicts they freed, Kapampangans and other Indios and by hanging all the Chinese in town in the belief that they worked for the British; in turn, the British regularly probe into the provinces of Laguna, Cavite, and Bulacan to prevent Anda from mustering enough force to threaten Manila; Sleigh's forces will triumph in this expedition to Bulacan but will not be able to hold the town for long and will later burn the church and rectory before marching to Manila. 

1896 - The maiden issue of Kalayaan, the organ of the underground-society- turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK), is dated as it is slated for  publication a few months before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution  against Spain; KKK Supremo Andres Bonifacio, "Brains of the Katipunan"  Emilio Jacinto, and Pio valenzuela have written most of the articles in the revolutionary newspaper whose actual publication will come only in March of the same year apparently owing in part to the laborious process involved; some 1,000 - 2,000 copies of the organ will be distributed although there will be no second issue of Kalayaan despite the effort to make it appear that the newspaper is published in Yokohama, Japan because the Spanish colonial authorities will discover the Katipunan through the betrayal of a Katipunero, leading to the rather  premature launch of the Revolution in August 1896; even with only one issue published, the Kalayaan will become a strong symbol of the independentist movement.

Raw photo credits:



Tuesday, January 17, 2012


Librada M. Avelino

1873- Librada Avelino y Mangali, future Filipino educator and co-founder of Centro Escolar University, is born in Pandacan Manila during the Spanish colonial period; when the successful flames of the Philippine Revolution against Spain is quickly snuffed out by the imperialist United States of America, Avelino will found a private school that will not prosper because of the developing hegemony of the newly imposed English language of the Bald Eagle nation; Avelino will cross the language barrier by learning the colonial American language at a school designed by the North American invaders for Spanish-trained Filipino teachers; along with Carmen de Luna and Fernando Salas, Avelino will establish the Centro Escolar de Senoritas that will later be known as the Centro Escolar University; a future recipient of Master of Pedagogy, honoris causa, University of the Philippines, Avelino will be noted for her defiant retort to her American history teacher, Prescott F. Jernegan, who will claim that Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo is the Cavite bandit chieftain, as follows: “Mr. Jernegan, Aguinaldo was not a bandit chieftain. Our revolutionists were not bandits. They were patriots just like the  Americans who revolted against England in 1776.”

1901 - Emilio F. Aguinaldo, Philippine  President on-the-guerrilla-run, issues  a manifesto condemning the atrocities  committed by the forces of the  imperialist Bald Eagle nation nearly  two years into the bloody and  protracted Filipino-American War  (1899-1914); the manifesto comes some  two months before Aguinaldo would be  traitorously captured by the enemy  Americans with help from Macabebe  scouts; Aguinaldo, who earlier  stupidly allowed the free entry of  American soldiers in the Southeast  Asian archipelago in the belief that  the United States was Filipinos' ally  against colonial Spain, particularly  condemned the barbaric execution style  of the imperialist Americans, to wit:
The heart-breaking sighs of the  oppressed and of their families, and  the energetic protests of all the  Filipino people reach me in my distant  camp, because of the unequalled  cruelties and the cynical violations  of the most elemental laws of war  perpetrated by the imperialists, who,  on the pretext that the unfortunate  victims have killed an American, hang  the prisoners of war in a way which is  repugnant to humanity, the agony  lasting fifteen minutes, according to  the Manila press which is under  censorship; or else inflict upon them  unheard-of tortures, according to the  testimony of my commanding generals;  and as if all these were not enough,  the military governor of the invading,  out of the jurisdiction of the law,  not only the Filipinos who are in arms  protest, but also the peaceful non- combatants, who are made prisoners or  deported without being tried, almost  always with no other purpose than to  ransack their houses and treasures, or  to hope for indemnity or bribe for  their freedom.

Photo credits:


Monday, January 16, 2012


1671 - The "Holy Inquisition" body of the Catholic Church suspends Fray Jose de Paternina as commissary of the Holy Office for Manila for complicity in the death of Governor Diego de Salcedo; Paternina, the only Augustinian who held the office of commissary and served as from 1664-1672,  is arrested and ordered to return to Mexico to face the Inquisition tribunal but will die during the voyage; Paternina, alleged to be unprincipled and morally depraved and who held personal differences with the governor general, earlier rashly ignored the Mexican tribunal's orders to defer arrest of the governor-general until allegations were confirmed; de Salcedo died at sea while shipped off to Acapulco

1901 - Apolinario M. Mabini leads the captured officials of the Philippine Republic who are sent to exile to Guam by the invading forces of the imperialist United States of America, nearly two years into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); Mabini, Generals Artemio Ricarte, Maximo Hizon, Pio del Pilar, and Malolos Congress delegate Pablo Ocampo were among the 57 Filipino patriots who have defiantly refused to swear allegiance to the Bald Eagle flag and have openly sympathized with the continued resistance movement against the invader Americans; enemy Gen. Arthur MacArthur decreed the deportation of the revolutionary statesman Mabini, the Philippines' first Prime Minister, Gen. Ricarte and the rest and are thus punished with exile, leaving Manila aboard the the U.S. Transport Rosecrans.

Photo credits:


Sunday, January 15, 2012


1900 - Lipa, Batangas is captured and looted by the forces of the 38th and 39th infantry regiments of the imperialist United States, nearly a year into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); some three months after the Bald Eagle forces nation launched a full-scale invasion offensive against the ill-equipped forces of the fledgling Philippine Republic and as the flames of war engulf southern Luzon, the enemy regiments advance from Tanuan Batangas into Lipa, which enemy Major Elwell Otis would describe as being marked by the occasional firing of shots by small Filipino detachments and some brisk resistance; Filipino freedom-fighters would continue the fight for independence via guerrilla warfare including in Batangas, forcing the invading bald Eagle. soldiers to resort to the cruel tactic of concentration camps: by Christmas of 1901, all residents of Batangas as well as Laguna, including the women and children, would be herded and kept prisoners into small areas and their houses, carts, animals, etc. be burned down.

Saturday, January 14, 2012


Anti-imperialist Sen. George F. Hoar

1899 - Sen. George F. Hoar of the United States submits what would be an unsuccessful resolution to  his country's Congress declaring that  the Philippines should be free and  independent; Hoar's resolution comes some three weeks after the invasion.cum. benevolent assimilation' proclamation of Bald Eagle nation President William McKinley claiming American "sovereignty" and ordering the "immediate occupation" of the former Spanish colony in Southeast Asia; Hoar, a prominent senator from Concord Massachusetts, is an anti-imperialist who denounces the ferocious issue of American imperialism, both in the Philippines and in Puerto Rico; Hoar would be almost alone  trying to prevent the imperialist course of his country and countering the voraciously vile pro-imperialist, Sen. Albert J. Beveridge who defends the supposed right of America to subjugate 'savage peoples and foreign governments' leading to the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

1899 - Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, leader of the fledgling Philippine  Republic, enumerates the reward to be given to those who would risk their  lives fighting for the independence of the country amidst the enemy United States' proclamation of aggression ("Benevolent Assimilation"); in response to yesterday's telegraph by Gen. Manuel Noriel and Col. Juan Cailles which asks for his earlier ultimatum against the imperialist United States and terms or rewards the government has scheduled, Aguinaldo writes: "Those who would be heroes will have a large quantity of money, extraordinary rewards, promotions, crosses of Biyak-na-bato, Marquis of Malate, Ermita, Count of Manila, etc. besides the congratulations of our worshipful country for their patriotism. The ultimatum has not been sent, but it will be within a few days"; eight days earlier, upon learning of the full contents of Bald Eagle President McKinley's aggression proclamation, Aguinaldo issued a counter-proclamation but which he soon softened by withdrawing the "open hostilities" phrase in another counter-proclamation.

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