Sunday, October 31, 2010


1898 - Madrid authorities receive a telegram informing them of the critical situation as the revolutionary fire spread in the Southeast Asian  archipelago two months into the Philippine  Revolution led by Supremo Andres Bonifacio against Spain; the revolution that started with the secret society-turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) came amidst more than three  centuries of colonial rule by the Spaniards began colonizing the islands in the mid-16th century  following its 1521 "discovery" of by explorer Magellan after later ascertaining that the  archipelago lies outside the Portuguese zone in line  with the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Andres Bonifacio - Emilio Aguinald
1896 - Capt. Emilio Aguinaldo, a local Cavite leader of the secret  society-turned-revolutionary-government  Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang  manga Anak  nang  Bayan (KKK), issues two manifestos,  foreshadowing his controversial rise to  revolutionary leadership via a power grab from  Supremo Andres Bonifacio during the Philippine Revolution against Spain; going by the nom de  guerre Magdalo, Aguinaldo who is a member of the  Katipunan chapter led by his cousin under the same  name, issues manifestos  (1) defining the  revolution's aims under "Liberty, Equality and  Fraternity,"and (2) his call for the formation of a  central revolutionary government; Aguinaldo will  depose Bonifacio from revolutionary leadership  through the anomalous Tejeros Convention, subject  the same to a kangaroo court martial trial wherein the assigned defense lawyer (Placido Martirez) spoke out against Bonifacio, and  have the Supremo executed in his turf province of  Cavite. 

Photo credit: Aguinaldo by John Wheeler  (1899) via

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