Thursday, March 31, 2011

31 MARCH

1899 - Malolos, the capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic, falls to the imperialist American forces led by General Arthur MacArthur more than two months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914), thus forcing President Emilio F. Aguinaldo to transfer the capital northwards to Tarlac; American's sickening sense of racial superiority is seen today in explaining US moves towards the invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago, as reflected in the diary of Sgt. Hiram Harlow, an American soldier who sees action in  several battles in Malolos, with his multiple referral to the Filipinos as "niggers."


Photo credit: http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/advancetomalolos.htm

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

30 MARCH


1591 - During the Spanish colonial period, Governor Perez Dasmarinas issues an ordinance in the city of Manila, Philippines that forbids the native indios to wear silk and other fabrics from China supposedly because such it is detrimental to the general welfare and that of the city government; the ordinance has been prompted by agitation to either ban or restrict the importation of Chinese silk, as well as cotton, which were very popular because of its incredibly low prices, thus threatening the elimination of Peninsular silk in Spain as and of draining gold and silver from the treasury; only a few decades earlier, Western colonization of the Southeast Asian archipelago began in 1565 when the Spaniards first established settlements in Cebu.


Photo credit: http://u.jimdo.com/www30/o/sb2a2e8d5e5ca741a/img/i4261c5997c4fb243/1279246126/std/image.jpg

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

29 MARCH


1896 - The Supreme Council of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), the secret revolutionary movement in the Philippines aiming to overthrow Spanish colonial rule, decides to elevate Balangay Nagbangon, its branch in the town of Pasig, to the status of a Sangguniang Bayan (Sb.) and to create a new one under its jurisdiction, Balangay Pinaglabanan, with the newly elected officers of the two units immediately taking their oaths-of-office; according to the United States Library of Congress, the KKK "insinuated itself into the community by setting up mutual aid societies and education for the poor [and by] 1896, the Katipunan had over 30,000 members and functioned at the national, provincial, and municipal levels."


Photo credit: http://fil.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Katipunan

Monday, March 28, 2011

28 MARCH


1907 - In accord with America's propaganda imperialistic policy of falsely claiming that the Philippine-American War ("insurrection" daw) ended in 1902, Governor James F. Smith certifies that since the publication of the Philippine Census in 1905 there have been no serious disturbances of the public order save those committed by outlaws and religious fanatics and that the great mass of the Filipinos have been “law-abiding, peaceful and loyal to the United States”; decades later, even American historians will write that the war of resistance valiantly fought by Filipino patriots against the imperialist United States forces well continued on until 1915 [and in] years to come, Americans [will remain] divided over the nation’s actions and imperial ambitions.





Photo credit: http://manilacarnivals.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html

Sunday, March 27, 2011

27 MARCH

Then-Col. San Miguel conferring with
imperialist Col. Stotsenburg, Feb. 2, 1899
1903 - Gen. Luciano San Miguel y Saklolo, one of the most valiant, nationalistic, and greatest though underrated Filipino heroes and revolutionaries, dies fighting the imperialist American forces and traitorous mercenaries during the Battle of Koral-na-Bato in Antipolo, Rizal, four years into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the real last Philippine Republic general who chose to continue fighting the vile Bald Eagle invaders despite Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo's capture and prompt swearing of allegiance to the enemy flag, a dying San Miguel will manage to utter the glorious words of heroism: “To give up one’s life for the Motherland and her freedom – this alone, is true happiness and honor!; a Caviteno who joined the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-body Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) in 1896, San Miguel was a bonafide man of the Supremo Andres C. Bonifacio under the Magdiwang KKK chapter;  he received the command of the northern provinces of Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Morong, Batangas, Laguna, and Manila as colonel during the Second Phase of the Revolution against Spain; during the Fil-Am War, he led military actions in central and western Luzon as general in the battles of 1899 and will revive the KKK in his command in Zambales; at the time of his death, he was the generalissimo in charge of overall field operations command of the Republic of Katagalugan, the anti-imperialist revolutionary body that took off from Bonifacio's 1896-1897 Katipunan, which San Miguel co-formed with Gen. Macario Sakay; similar to that of Bonifacio who died under the hands of his countrymen, Gen. San Miguel's heroic death in Rizal's Pugad-Babuy district was effected by the imperialist pawns Philippine Constabulary and mercenary Philippine Scouts forces that mostly consisted of traitorous, co-opted Filipinos; the (third)  Battle of Corral-na-Bato will later be regarded as the last great anti-imperialist-American battle in the Luzon but following San Miguel's death, a new phase of the guerrilla struggle of the Filipino freedom fighters in the Philippine's Luzon island will continue unabated for four more years with popular support. 



Raw photo credit: http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/filamwarbreaksout.htm

Saturday, March 26, 2011

26 MARCH

Original Philippine Flag
1920 - During the American colonial period, the Philippine Legislature passes Act No. 2928 adopting the Filipino flag of the so-called Malolos Republic as the official flag of the Government of the Philippine Islands to be flown next to the American flag;  through Act No. 1696, also known as the Flag Law  of 1907, the imperialist Bald Eagle authorities had outlawed the display or unfurling of Filipino flags, including that of the Malolos Republic and  flags, banners, emblems, and symbols  of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government that led the Philippine Revolution against Spain, which was a law that was earlier promulgated midway into the  protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).


Photo credit: http://filhistorybuffs.multiply.com/photos/album/1/Philippine_Flags_in_History

Friday, March 25, 2011

25 MARCH

Filipino hero, Gen. Isabelo Abaya
 1898 - Filipino revolutionary leader Federico Isabelo Abaya and his men capture Candon, Ilocos Sur from the colonial Spaniards, one year and seven months into the Philippine Revolution, with the Ilocanos establishing the "Republic of Candon," appointing Fernando Guirnalda as President and Abaya as general and commander-in-chief who will send  three columns to liberate as well  the neighboring towns to  north, east, and south but the Spaniards will retake Candon by sending shock troops within three days; Guirnalda will join up with the forces of the national government of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo in Pangasinan and will return with Philippine Republic forces the following year and in-between, Abaya will continue the revolutionary struggle through guerrilla warfare; Abaya, one of the organizers of the Katipunan in Ilocos, will not relent in his patriotic aspirations, continuing through the Filipino-American War (1899-1914), recruiting Igorots whom he will lead in the Battle of Caloocan during the initial battles of the anti-colonial struggle; Gen. Abaya will become a folk hero to the Ilokanos and will as well earn legendary status among the imperialist Bald Eagle forces, with his head being a coveted prize for the enemy Americans of the 33rd Infantry, along with their traitorous mercenaries;  Abaya will die a hero in 1900, either during a battle as recounted by his superior Villamor, or in captivity on May 3 as alleged by imperialist Gen. Arthur MacArthur, after the would-be-infamous Filipino traitor Januario Galut points out the former's hideout in Lidlidda, Ilocos Sur.


1898 -- on the very same day, the 74th Filipino regiment at the Cavite naval fort march out of the barracks, bringing arms and equipment with them as they join the revolutionaries; however, this day also sees the massacre by the enemy Spanish soldiers of many Visayan sailors in Camba St., Manila, a detestable development to be dubbed as the "Massacre of Calle Camba" and which will prompt former seminarian and fiery Leon Kilat to avenge his compatriots by inciting an uprising in Cebu a week later--burning the city's business section, looting the churches, and killing Spaniards including the friars. 


Photo credit: http://www.tagacandon.com/Publications.html

Thursday, March 24, 2011

24 MARCH

 1897 - Filipino revolutionary and patriot Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia reluctantly takes his oath of office in a clandestine ceremony after being elected the General-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army during the anomalous Tejeros Convention two days earlier, seven months into the Philippine Revolution against Spain; Ricarte has initially refused to take the oath because he believes the elections were marred by fraud and because he thinks he is not qualified to hold the job; the convention proved to be scandalous and was  declared invalid and fraudulent by Andres C. Bonifacio, the Supremo of the original revolutionary body, Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK); Bonifacio earlier agreed to chair the convention despite the fact that the Katipunan was already a revolutionary body in his patriotic bid to unite the warring Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the KKK in Cavite province, and despite prior reports that the Imus crowd in the province wanted only men from their pueblos to be elected and that pre-filled ballots carrying Magdalo names were distributed; Bonifacio ended up being insulted by Daniel Tirona who scandalously disrespects the balloting by questioning the Supremo's credentials and asking the crowd to elect another man in his place;  along with Ricarte, Emilio F. Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias take their oath in a ceremony kept hidden from the Magdiwang, with the controversial Tirona as one of the witnesses, and with Bonifacio not having been invited.


Photo credit: http://www.getdomainpics.com/keyword/artemio%20ricarte/

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

23 MARCH

1901 - Philippine President-on-the-run Emilio Aguinaldo is deceptively captured by imperialist American soldiers led by Frederick Funstons posing as prisoners of the traitorous local Macabebe scouts in Palanan, Isabela nearly 2 years & 3 months into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); drawn up by Funston, the manner of Aguinaldo's capture, which would be condemned by the anti-Imperialists in America,  is marked by the forgery of the letter of  Gen. Urbano Lacuna after Filipino surrenderee and turncoat Cecilio Segismundo turned over crucial dispatches indicating Aguinaldo's whereabouts  and by the subsequent disguising of traitorous former  freedom fighter leaders and 78 Macabebes, members of the "Philippine scouts" [read: imperialist anti-Philippine Republic mercenaries] as Filipino replacement soldiers; instead of resisting or fighting to death the Bald Eagle forces as a way of sustaining the morale of his soldiers still valiantly fighting the new colonizing forces during the Philippine-American, Aguinaldo will become a cooperative US Prisoner of War and will swear allegiance to the enemy flag within only a few days from capture, even issuing on that same day a widely circulated proclamation wherein he calls upon his soldiers to accept imperialist-imposed peace and unite "around the glorious and sovereign banner of the United States"; in a few years, almost  all generals of Aguinaldo's republic would capitulate although the Fil-Am War will be continued until about 1914 by other freedom-fighting soldiers and Katipuneros/veterans of the 1896 Revolution; Aguinaldo will capitulate fully and will receive 300 hectares of choice friar lands that adjoin his Imus, Cavite home town.


Photo credit: http://www.yonip.com/archives/history/history-000053.html

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

22 MARCH


1897 - The fraudulent and controversial Tejeros Convention elects the new officers of the Philippine revolutionary body, with Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, head of the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) , the original secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government fighting the colonial Spaniards, being elected Interior Director and Emilio F. Aguinaldo, the President; the convention could possibly have ended peacefully had Daniel Tirona, months earlier accused by the Supremo of disseminating propagating poison letters against him, not objected to Bonifacio's election, supposedly on grounds of lack of qualification when he scandalously disrespected the results and insulting the Supremo by loudly shouting "Let us elect Mr. Jose del Rosario, the lawyer!"; prior to the election, Bonifacio had been warned by a Magdiwang officer, Diego Mojica, about Tirona's distribution of pre-filled ballots with Magdalo names in them; Bonifacio, who has been lured into Cavite so he can supposedly unite the Magdalo and Magdiwang KKK factions of the province, with the Magdiwang said to be accusing the former of wanting "to rule all and the entire Philippines"; Bonifacio, who also earlier learned of "the underhand work of some of the Imus crowd who had quietly spread the statement that it was not advisable that they be governed by men" from outside pueblos, will soon issue Acta de Tejeros declaring the corrupt elections invalid, but unfortunately, be caught by Aguinaldo's forces before reaching what has been speculated to be either Manila or Batangas that, according to the Supremo, "has organized a provincial government " placed under his orders; Aguinaldo's forces would charge the Supremo and his brothers with "sedition" and be found 'guilty' by a kangaroo court martial wherein the assigned defense lawyer himself condemned Bonifacio; the Tejeros Convention would be later be condemned as a coup and counterrevolution by more progressive historians.




Photo credit:
http://philippine-revolution.110mb.com/tejeros.htmhttp://kasaysayan-kkk.info/docs.adt.230397.htm

Monday, March 21, 2011

21 MARCH

Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
1935 - Hiroshi Tamura, a major in the Japanese Imperial Army stationed in Taiwan, writes former revolutionary leader and ex-Philippine President General Aguinaldo about his strong sentiments against imperialist American presence in the Southeast Asian Archipelago; the Bald Eagle nation invaded the Philippines at the turn of the century, conning Aguinaldo by making him believe that the United States was a ally against colonial Spain, prompting the former leader to stupidly permit the free entry of American forces into the islands, thus allowing the vile Americans to position themselves for the Mock Battle of Manila and eventual invasion of the Southeast Asian archipelago; six 1/2 years later, Japan will challenge American colonial presence in Asia-Pacific during World War II, invading the Philippines and adding the islands to its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, envisioned to be a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers".


Photo credit: http://www.japanfocus.org/-Man_houng-Lin/2258

Sunday, March 20, 2011

20 MARCH

Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundok
1900 - Filipino Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundok orders the execution of all traitorous local, civil and barrio officials who either assist the enemy Americans or fail to report to the nearest guerrilla commander the movements and plans of the imperialist troops, one year and one month into the bloody and protracted during the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Tinio's order is a response to the enemy United States forces' use of Philippine Scouts [read: Filipino mercenary traitors], making traitors out of locals to assist them in subjugating the Southeast Asian archipelago; one of the ablest and youngest generals of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Tinio was a veteran of the rather recently and controversially concluded Revolution against Spain, being part responsible for the capture of San Isidro and the proclamation of Nueva Ecija's independence from Spanish hold and the subjugation of the Ilokano's resistance to the Revolution; Tinio's Brigade would be responsible for holding open the line of northward withdrawal of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo  who was hotly pursued by the imperialist Americans; Tinio had recently shifted military strategy in fighting the enemy by dividing and organizing his brigade into columna volantes or guerrilla ambush units posted along the road and other strategic sites, with the local citizenry serving as polistas and vigilant spies against the movement of the Bald Eagle forces; while the strategy would proved rather successful, Tinio would eventually surrender after American deserter John Allane, who returned to the fold of the invaders, gave sensitive information about his brigade and after Aguinaldo's capture and prompt swearing of fealty to the imperialist enemy flag about year later.



Photo credit:

http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/ilocosandcagayan1899.htm

Saturday, March 19, 2011

19 MARCH

Gabriela Silang, first Filipina female freedom-fighter
1731 - Maria Josefa Gabriela Cari-oSilang, Filipina patriot who will lead a rebellion against the Spanish colonizers, is born to an Ilocano peasant and an Itneg househelp from Abra in Sta. Caniogan, Ilocos Sur; better known as Gabriela Silang, she will take over leadership of rebel group of her husband, Diego Silang, in the Ilocos province and will thus become the first woman freedom fighting rebel leader of the Philippines; Diego Silang, who will launch the so-called Ilocano revolt to attempt to liberate his province from the onerously high taxes and forced labor imposed by the Spanish colonial authorities and will proclaim the independence of his people in December 1762, will soon be treacherously killed; Gabriela will courageously take up the patriotic cause of his fallen husband, lead his rebel group, and even recruited tribal freedom fighters from his mother's side, the Itnegs; she will lead her rebellious army in its attacks against the garrisons of the enemy colonizers on the coastal town but would be badly beaten in their attack on Vigan in the first week of September 1763; the heroine and her loyal soldiers would soon be captured, and Gabriela publicly hanged by the heartless Spaniards on the 20th of the same month.


Photo credit:

http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/New_Intermediate_Tagalog/Reading_Lessons/LESSONS/gabriela_silang.htm

Friday, March 18, 2011

18 MARCH

Gen. Ananias Diokno y Noblejas
1901 - Filipino soldiers fighters led by General Ananias Diokno y Noblejas are ambushed while trying to fight off the invading imperialist American  forces in the island of Panay, two years into the protracted and bloody  Philippine-American War (1899-1914); under the general command of Gen. Martin Delgado y Bermejo, the Panay forces had been  initially operating independently of the Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo during the Revolution against Spain although Aguinaldo would later send Tagalog forces under the command of Gen. Diokno and Gen. Leandro Fullon y Locson months before the onset of the Fil-Am War; said to have been sent to unify the Visayan revolutionaries and help defeat the Spaniards, Gen. Diokno organized  the command of Batallion Maluya and presented successful battles against the Spaniards and, together with the forces of Delgado and Fullon Gen. Diokno, presented strong resistance against the vile invading Americans for a time; Gen. Diokno, who has been compelled to conduct a guerrilla war with a few men left in his control following the February 2 surrender of General Martin Delgado to enemy Bald Eagle Gen. Robert P. Hughes, will be wounded and captured but later will patriotically refuse the American co-optation offer to occupy directorship of the Bureau of Agriculture.


Photo credit:
http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/thewarinthevisayas.htm

Thursday, March 17, 2011

17 MARCH



Malolos Church, Presidential Residence, Philippine Republic
1899 -  A member of a prominent Manila family visits Malolos, capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic, to try to convince President Emilio Aguinaldo on the futility of further resistance against imperialist American forces some six weeks into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914);  after hearing the arguments of the prominent Manileno, Aguinaldo orders his immediate execution, although two years later, the latter would himself swear allegiance to the enemy American flag within only a few days of his treacherous capture by the Bald Eagle forces; the imperialist United States military forces fired the first shots of the Phil-Am War on February 4, 1899 at Sta. Ana, Manila as a deliberate provocation secretly planned by the William McKinley administration in the vile scheme to blame it on the Filipinos and influence the U.S. Senate into ratifying the Treaty of Paris and, thus, fund the military operations to invade the Philippines.


1900 - Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic under siege from imperialist American invaders, reads aloud an account of  Lt. Col. Juan Villamor's military success in capturing 200 Americans with their rifles in the Pial settlement of Abra Province; the proud account of Aguinaldo read this morning at Libuagan camp in Kalinga comes a year and a month into the Filipino-American War (1899-1914).


Photo credits:

http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

16 MARCH

1705 - As a sign of amity, Sultan Shahabud-Din of Jolo in the Philippine archipelago informs Spanish colonial Gov.-Gen. Domigo Zalbalburu de Echevarri through a letter that he has decided to "cede" to the Spanish Crown his possessions on Paragua island  (future Palawan), including the neighboring Lauag isle (future Balabac); the cession of Lauag isle would later be secured through the Sultan of Brunei by Juan Moralez de Valenzuela, an envoy who also worked for former Governor Juan Vargas de Hurtado (1678-1684); Gov. Zalhaxbubu's reign over the Spanish colony, the Philippines, would be marked by the construction of royal storehouses and galleons, repair of Gavite, reconstruction of the royal power house of Malate and flourishing commerce.

1521 - Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese-born explorer for the Spanish crown, sights the archipelago of San Lazaro, what will later be called the Philippines, and names two islands--Yunagan and Suluan, where they anchor; his ship will later successively land at the islands of Gada, Seilani, and Mazava, and thereafter either anchor at or pass by Matan(=Mactan), Subu(=Cebu), Baibai(=Baybay); the colonial explorers will leave Subu, described as having gold and ginger and then pass by the island of Panilongo, which a crew's diary will describe as being inhabited by blacks, before anchoring at Bohol; Magellan's exploration will eventually lead to Spain's colonization of the Southeast Asian archipelago for over 300 years.


Photo credit: http://www.thefullwiki.org/Sulu_Archipelago

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

15 MARCH

Sta. Ana, Manila, Feb 5, 1899 - Filipino freedom-fighters dead a day after Americans triggered the Fil-Am War
1899 - Gen. Mariano C. Trias submits to Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, the report showing that the imperialist Americans started the first shots of the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) and that, moreover, the initial February 4 attack had been premeditated;  historians would later learn that the United States Congress decided to go to war based on a fraudulent claim that Filipinos began attacking American soldiers in Manila,as part of the vile “prearranged plan” by the U.S. military to precipitate the Philippine-American War immediately after an incident has been provoked; racist U.S. soldier Pvt. William Grayson fired  the first shots at Filipino soldiers trying to cross Sta. Ana bridge as part of the  secret orders made by regimental commanders some two days earlier to bring about conflict; Bald Eagle President William McKinley schemed to trick the U.S. Senate to approve  the Treaty of Paris and, thus, secure funding for military operations to annex the Philippines as part of the imperialist policy for Bald Eagle's overseas expansion.

1900 - Colonial officials at Manila, Philippines try to comply with the controversial 1898 Treaty of Paris forged between the imperialist United States and Spain, with the Spaniards leaving the Southeast Asian archipelago and being urged to bring their Filipina wives with them; the compliance with the Treaty which supposedly cedes the Philippines for $20 million dollars--despite the fact that the Filipino revolutionaries had already declared independence after virtually wresting control of the archipelago from the Spaniards--marks the end of the over 300 years of Spain's presence in (and colonization of) the Philippines; occurring a year and a month into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914), the Treaty of Paris that ridiculously tackles Spain's sale/ceding of a territory it no longer owns has met severe criticism from the Filipinos, including Gen. Antonio N. Luna who early on lambasted the paradox of American claims of democracy and the inhumanity allowed by international law:

People are not to be bought and sold like horses and houses. If the aim has been to abolish the traffic in Negroes because it meant the sale of persons, why is there still maintained [in international law] the sale of countries with inhabitants free to be unwilling to form part of a[nother] nation?

Photo credit: http://www.yonip.com/archives/history/1899%20feb%205%20after%20the%20battle%20of%20santa%20ana,%20manila_edited.JPG

Monday, March 14, 2011

14 MARCH

1899 - Imperialist United States Gen. Elwell Otis reports to the Adjutant-General in Washington that Gen.Loyd Wheaton has attacked a large force of “the enemy,” referring to the freedom-fighting Filipinos one month into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the report that mentions the heavy losses were inflicted on the side Filipinos comes a day after the Battle of Guadalupe Church wherein invading Bald Eagle forces including those from the 51st Iowa Infantry, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and Washington volunteers routed the poorly armed Filipinos; with other dispatches to Washington stating that “fierce opposition” was offered by the natives, Major Grant is ordered to take one of the gunboats and destroy all the Filipino vessels in Laguna de Bay; the invading American's strategy mapped out by Otis, who thinks resistance is concentrated in the southern Luzon provinces, consists of severing the supply line of Filipinos north of Manila and then aiming to capture Malolos, the proclaimed capital of the fledgling Philippine Republic.

1947 - The controversial RP-US Military Bases Agreement (MBA) that grants American access to 22 military, naval, and air bases in the Philippines is signed by Philippine President Manuel A. Roxas and United States Ambassador Paul V. McNutt at Malacanang some eight months after the imperialist Bald Eagle nation granted "independence" to its Southeast Asian colony; supposedly forged for the mutual defense of the two countries, the agreement would be decried by nationalists as both a symbol and actual tool of American neo-colonial hold on Filipinos; another criticism of the MBA is how it was approved only as an international executive agreement on the American side, not having been ratified by the U.S. legislature. 



Photo credit: http://books.google.com/books?id=8V3vZxOmHssC&pg=PA348&dq=gen.+otis+philippine+american+war&hl=en&ei=QjV-TYucM4fZrQeasLmzBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=gen.%20otis%20philippine%20american%20war&f=false

Sunday, March 13, 2011

13 MARCH

Imperialist U.S. gunboat Laguna de Bay
1899 - Some 200 Filipino freedom fighters are killed by imperialist American forces led by Bald Eagle Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton during the Battle of Guadalupe Church one year and one month into the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); the battle taken part in by the enemy U.S. forces that include the 51st Iowa Infantry, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment led by Col. Owen Summers, and  Washington volunteers in the Pedro Macati area (later  to be known as Makati City) would also see the terrible destruction of the convent, with official US report only listing 3 Americans killed and 26 wounded; the  U.S. gunboat Laguna de Bay--purchased from a Spanish firm--and armored by Utah Volunteer Light Artillery Capt. Frank A. Grant takes part in the invasion operations, bombarding the convent with eight guns mounted upon her; the Filipino freedom fighters are strongly entrenched near the Pasig river at the Guadalupe Church, such that the invading Americans planned to hold the left of their long line of invading troops "facing this district stationary until the right swung around on the flank of this position" at which moment the pivot should charge with the Laguna de Bay  as support.




Photo credit: http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/manilatolagunadebay.htm

Saturday, March 12, 2011

12 MARCH

Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc

1900 - Filipino military leader Gen. Manuel Tinio  y Bundoc instructs commanders of the flying columns under his jurisdiction to intensify their guerrilla operations against enemy American forces; the youngest general of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Tinio has proved to be one of the most efficient military leaders during the guerrilla warfare phase of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), having turned the whole Ilocos region and its population into an espionage network marked by a warning system that apprises the Filipino freedom fighters of approaching imperialist forces; earlier, during the Philippine Revolution, Tinio had won a number of skirmishes against the Spaniards, possibly paving the way for his appointment as Brigadier General during the formation of “Gobierno Departamental de las Siete Provincias en el Centro de Luzon"; Tinio, unfortunately, will surrender and pledge allegiance to the enemy Bald Eagle flag on May 1, 1901, soon after President Emilio F. Aguinaldo's capture and prompt decision to swear loyalty to the imperialist Americans; in line with the pale-skinned invaders' policy  of co-optation, his surrender and allegiance will be  rewarded, with Tinio serving as Nueva Ecija governor and, later, as the first director of the colonial Bureau of Labor.


Photo credit: http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/trappingaguinaldo1899.htm

Friday, March 11, 2011

11 MARCH

1947 - Despite the granting of "independence" to the Philippines, the Parity Rights amendment to the 1935 Constitution is ratified, ridiculously giving American citizens equal rights as Filipinos to exploit the natural resources of the Southeast Asian country; in exchange for post-World War II aid, the administration of President Manuel Roxas had actively campaigned for the ratification of Parity Rights in what has been described as "persuasive harangue" and which will merit him a foiled assassination attempt by a disgruntled barber;  Roxas is said to have employed foul measures to ensure vote for parity, including asking government employees and military personnel, among others, to persuade Filipinos to vote for parity, denying poll watching job to teachers who refused to vote for parity, even deliberately reducing the voting population by printing referendum ballots only in English and Spanish,  moving polling booths out of areas where parity opponents were strong, and also conspiring against duly elected Leftist members of Congress;  the archipelagic nation became a colony of the imperialist United States at the turn of the century as the fledgling Philippine Republic, after virtually gaining independence from Spain, succumbed to the might of the enemy Bald Eagle nation during the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).


Photo credit: http://historicitythemovie.tumblr.com/

Thursday, March 10, 2011

10 March

1892 - The masonic lodge Nilad, established by future Filipino patriots Pedro Serrano Laktaw and Antonio Luna, is recognized and given the number 144 by the Gran Oriente Espanol, the Spanish mother lodge; although freemasonry was introduced in the Philippines back in 1856, freemasonry with native elements and participation began only when Filipino intellectuals in foreign countries decided to organize masonic lodges in the Southeast Asian nation as a way to help address the continued persecution and injustices committed by Spanish friars against Filipinos; aiming to propagate the Masonic principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, propagandists and patriots Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Jose Rizal thought of organizing Philippine Masonry, commissioning  Luna and Laktaw for the task, with the Nilad Lodge eventually being constituted in January 1891; freemasonry will play an important role in the life of Filipinos as a number of its members will figure in the agitation for Philippine Independence, including Andres Bonifacio y de Castro who will co-found the secret society Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) and eventually lead the first phase of the  Philippine Revolution against Spain.


Photo credit: http://masoniceducation.blogspot.com/2008/01/rite-of-adoption-womens-lodge-in.html

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

9 MARCH


1900 - Detachment commanders of the Filipino forces are informed by Second Zone Secretary Potenciano Luna that Capt. Pedro Cadurales and several others had been killed, including patriotic soldiers who were shot after being captured by the enemy forces of the imperialist United States; writing in a circular a year and a month into bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), Luna also cautions the Filipino soldiers to be wary of infiltrators and to "Take care of our guns, bury them under the earth so nobody shall know about it, except the officer and the sergeant."





Photo credit:

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3033/2809162355_bf975a7edc.jpg

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

8 MARCH

A KKK document signed by the Supremo

1896 - The Supreme Council of the secret Philippine underground-society-turned revolutionary government  Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), rules that Balangay Mahiganti, a KKK branch in Ermita, Manila, be elevated to the status of a Sangguniang Bayan (Sb.); Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, as the Katipunan's Supreme President, discusses the  newly elected officers' duties, subsequently explaining why the Katipunan's Supreme Assembly decided to require all KKK sections to remit fees paid by new members and those promoted to a higher grade to the Supreme Council; the decision comes less than six months before the Katipunan was forced to prematurely launch the Philippine Revolution against Spain following discovery of the society's existence by the colonial authorities.


Photo credit: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1212239284789&set=a.1146699406333.18699.1792989548

Monday, March 7, 2011

7 MARCH

American-sponsored Philippine Congress, circa 1916
1919 - The American-sponsored Philippine Legislature passes a Declaration of Purposes that official spells out the purported position of the Filipinos on the vital issue of the "Philippine question"--the grant of independence by the imperialist United States; the Declaration come after some five years after the Filipino freedom fighters have been completely subdued and the last shots of the Filipino-American War (1899-1914) fired; the Jones Act was passed in 1916 by the United States Congress, providing for the recognition of Philippine independence supposedly after Filipinos would have been able to establish a stable government; the Senate and the Lower House would be established and control over most of the executive departments be given to the Filipinos, with the notable exception of the important Education portfolio; the Bald Eagle nation stole the Southeast Asian nation's virtual independence during the turn of the century when the U.S. decided to annex it and (secretly) provoke war against the fledgling Philippine Republic.


Photo credit: http://www.ssc.edu.ph/centennial%20website/SSC%201910-1919.htm

Sunday, March 6, 2011

6 MARCH

Imperialist Taft Commission

1901 - Apolinario M. Mabini, Prime Minister of the fledgling Philippine Republic under siege by imperialist American forces, informs President Emilio Aguinaldo of William H. Taft's reply that the United States could not recognize Philippine independence, two years and one month into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); in reaction, Aguinaldo declares his continued pursuit of independence and urges peace within that context; the reply of Taft, head of the Philippine Commission [translation: imperialist commission] has revealed to the Filipinos that the Taft Commission is aimed at consolidating American sovereignty and not honoring the independence of Filipinos in any way; earlier, in November 1900 following his August conference with Taft, Mabini communicated to Aguinaldo his thoughts about the enemy Americans' adamant refusal to recognize Philippine independence; Bald Eagle President William Mckinley's policy to forcibly annex the Southeast Asian archipelago and instigate the Fil-Am War has been criticized by the more honorable Americans, including the members of the Anti-Imperialist League.


Raw Photo Credit:
 http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/collapse1901.htm

Saturday, March 5, 2011

5 MARCH


1899 - A band of Filipinos fire on some crew members of the imperialist United States gunboat U.S.S. Bennington one month into the Philippine-American War (1899-1914);  the incident is supposed to give Washington the impression that their invading forces are getting nervous and restless under the "harassment"  of the patriots of the fledgling Philippine Republic; the Phil-Am War began on February 4, 1899 under the provocation of the Bald Eagle forces under the US President William McKinley's vile pre-arranged plan to precipitate a war and thereby trick their Senate to approve the December 1898 Treaty of Paris and thus secure funding for military operations to annex the  Southeast Asian archipelago (in context, along with Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Guano islands, American Samoa, and other islands in the Pacific).



Photo credit: http://ngayonsakasaysayan.blogspot.com/2010_03_04_archive.html

Friday, March 4, 2011

4 MARCH

Rosa Sevilla Alvero

1879 - Rosa Sevilla Alvero, oustanding Filipina patriot, early feminist, suffragist, and educator, is born in Tondo, Manila during the Spanish colonial period; Alvero will serve in the Philippine Revolution by helping prepare food for the Filipino troops, attend to the wounded and be one of the two women staffers of La Independencia, a wartime newspaper published by Gen. Antonio Luna in September 1898 during the second phase of the struggle against Spain; she will crop her hair and don a man's uniform to fight the enemy forces of the United States although a timely intervention of Gen. Marcelino de los Santos will prevent what could have been horrible fate as her father who will die a captive in the hands of the imperialists during the (early part of the) Philippine-American War (1899-1914); Alvero will establish the Instituto de Mujeres, what would be the first Filipino-run school for girls offering primary to collegiate courses, and will help fight for women's right to vote during the American colonial period; she will be noted for a speech she will deliver before Congress in 1930 that cites the important role of women in revolutions and nation-building:
"Where a patriot or a hero sprang up, there always appeared the beneficent and inspiring figure of a mother, a wife, a daughter or a sister, ready to encourage and sustain him."

Photo credit:

http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com/philippineindependence.htm

Thursday, March 3, 2011

3 MARCH

Monument to earlier Basi Revolt
1815 - The Kailianes ("townmates") of the Philippine northern town of Sarrat in Ilocos Norte begin a rebellion against the rule of the Spanish colonizers; soon spreading to other towns such as Batac, Piddig, Paoay, Vintar, and San Nicolas, the uprising under the leadership of Simon Tomas, Mariano Espiritu, Vicente Santiago, and Andres Bugarin will be one of the many unsuccessful revolts in the archipelago prior to the Philippine Revolution of 1896; Spain had colonized the Southeast Asian archipelago beginning around the 1500s and onerous tributary arrangements and other conditions conditions of the natives have occasionally fueled (failed) revolts, including the Basi Revolt staged by the people of Ilocos Norte some eight years earlier in the bid to protest the Spaniard's imposition of wine monopoly.


Photo credit:  http://www.flickr.com/photos/bigberto/1002655675/in/photostream/

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

2 March

Gen. MacArthur inspects Manila tunnel
after recapturing Corregidor

1945 - The United States forces retake from the Japanese the island fortress of Corregidor in the Philippines, American colony since the turn of the century; the American forces led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur returned to the Philippines in November 1944 with the plan to launch major attacks on the islands of Luzon and Mindanao; after Manila was captured away from Japanese hand, the 38th Division of the U.S. forces landed on Luzon's Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor recaptured using two attacks--parachute drop and amphibious landing; Corregidor had fallen to the Japanese Imperial Army on May 6, 1942 as World War II swept through the Pacific, with Japan pounding the American military bases as part of the campaign to invade the Southeast Asian archipelago and MacArthur fleeing to Australia. 



Photo credit: http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=854f468920b67806