Saturday, June 30, 2012


1897 - More than one and a half months after bloodily sealing his usurpation of revolutionary leadership from Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo has the nerve to call on everyone who possesseses honor and the sense of personal dignity, the Filipino, the Asiatic, the American and the European all alike suffer; to join the Revolution against Spain; Aguinaldo earlier dislodged Bonifacio, Supreme President of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK), from the helm of revolutionary leadership through the fraudulent and anomalous March 1897  Tejeros Convention, subsequently ordering the dead-or-alive abduction of Bonifacio, his kangaroo court martial and then the assassination-cum-execution of the Supremo and his brother Procopio on May 10, 1897; one of the other "winners" in the Tejeros Convention, Gen. Artemio Ricarte, issued a declaration stating in part that the Tejeros Convention "had not been in conformity with the true will of the people"  as a Katipunan official earlier warned Bonifacio of  ballots pre-filled with Magdalo names, apparently prompting Bonifacio to issue the Acta de Tejeros that nullified the results of the elections and later co-signing the Naik Military Agreement that declared several Filipino revolutionaries (referring to but not naming the side of Aguinaldo) as having committed treason against the nation and the revolution by trying to forge a peace pact with the enemy Spanish colonial forces; Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, future key adviser of Aguinaldo, will a few years later write in his memoirs that Aguinaldo was behind the "crime" of the "assassination" of the Supremo.

Friday, June 29, 2012


1944 - Imperialist United States decrees its right to retain military, naval, and air bases in  its colony, the Philippines, via Joint Resolution No. 83 approved by the US Congress, supposedly intended for the 'mutual  protection' of the colony and itself and or the  maintenance of peace in the Pacific;  the resolution,  passed during World War II  while their Southeast Asian colony is temporarily under Japanese hands, was originally but  minimally enshrined in the Tydings-McDuffie Law that empowered the Bald Eagle nation to only retain naval bases; the North American nation will "grant" pathetic Philippines its independence  in 1946 but not before establishing  several colonizing mechanisms through agreements,  treaties aimed at manipulating and controlling Filipinos' political and economic lives, which were to materialize as the controversial RP-US Military Bases Agreement (MBA) to be signed by Philippine President Manuel A. Roxas and United States Ambassador Paul V. McNutt at Malacanang in March 1947, some eight months after Philippines was given its 'Independence' following the end of World War II; the MBA will  primarily give Americans access to 22 military, naval, and air bases in the Philippines in the guise of  providing mutual defense to the two countries.

Thursday, June 28, 2012


1571 - The first session of the Ayuntamiento is held in Manila, Philippine islands, during  the early decades of Spanish colonial rule in the Southeast Asian archipelago; also known as cabildo, the ayuntamiento was a colonial administrative council governing a municipality, with every Spanish colonial municipality in the Philippines (and the Southern Americas)  theoretically having an ayuntamiento each; ayuntamiento edifices were often excellent in  style, as seen in the Manila Ayuntamiento, which would later also be the site where imperialist  representatives Spanish Governor General  Jaudenes and American General Wesley Merrit will  sign the supposedly official change of colonial power over pathetic colony, the Philippines, some 300 years later when the emerging imperialist, the Bald Eagle nation, will con the Filipino freedom fighters into thinking the United States is an ally against Spain during the Philippine Revolution and will supposedly honor  Philippine Independence,  forging an alliance with them during the Spanish-American War, which intersected with the Philippine Revolution, but subsequently stealing their independence by staging the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that it is the Americans instead of the Filipinos that defeated the Spaniards in the Philippines, later signing the de facto baseless December 1898 Treaty of Paris, and then following it all up by provoking the start of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War  (1899-1914).

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Wednesday, June 27, 2012


1864 - Father Apolonio Burgos y Garcia publishes during the Spanish colonial period a superb defense of native Catholic priests in the Philippines, his  Manifesto to the Noble Spanish People Which the Loyal Filipinos Address in Defense of their  Honor and Loyalty; therein, the native priest deplores the racist assertions by white writers with inflated sense of their racial stock, alleging that their pale-skinned race is superior over the colored ones; Burgos also bewails the racial indignities the colonial Spanish authorities subject the natives of the Southeast Asian archipelago to; the Filipino priest Burgos will later be executed, along with  fellow clergymen Mariano Gómez and Jacinto Zamora who have been peacefully fighting for equal rights of native priests vis-a-vis Spanish friars, during the infamous execution of the  GOMBURZA triumvirate in February 1872 based on false charges of subversion and practically without any defense in connection with the trial for the Cavite Mutiny.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012


1854 - Manuel de Pavia y Lacy, Governor-General of the Philippine Islands during the Spanish colonial period, decrees the establishment of “Cartas de radio” (special radius permit), in the Central Luzon provinces of Laguna, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga and Tondo; the use of Cartas de radio, an identification paper aiming to distinguish the public from strangers, is to supposedly ensure peace and order by barring the entry of strangers into any province without proper identity paper(s); holding colonial office beginning from 1852, Pavia established monthly mail service between Manila and Hongkong and, as well, prisoners' funds amounting to four cuartos for a day of work as a way of helping prisoners deal with life outside following their release; Pavia will return to Madrid to unsuccessfully defend Queen Isabella II during the Spanish Revolution of 1868 and will die in the same  in 1896 during Pavia's term as colonial governor of the Southeast Asian islands, he reequipped the colonizing army and suppressed a formidable 1854 mutiny by a number of Filipino native troops.

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Monday, June 25, 2012


1898 - American Consul General at Hong Kong Rounseville Wildman foxily writes Philippine President Emilio  Aguinaldo y Famy  convincing him to stand shoulder to shoulder with what will be the future invading American forces, saying that he has supposedly "vouched for [Aguinaldo's] honesty and  earnestness of purpose to the President of the United States and to [the American] people,"  during the Revolution after the Filipinos have declared Independence following their liberation of majority of areas of the archipelago from the hands of the Spanish colonizers; the communications of  Wildman, who will later apparently rip off Aguinaldo of P67,000 intended for a  second shipment of arms and ammunition, have been instrumental in making Aguinaldo stupidly trust imperialist  Commodore George Dewey with whom he forged an alliance against Spain and his deceptive promises of honoring Philippine Independence; Aguinaldo will soon stupidly allow the American forces to freely enter Philippine territory and thereby position themselves for their sinister scheme of invading the fledgling Southeast Asian Republic, erupting into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War  (1899-1914).

Sunday, June 24, 2012


1898 - Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio liberates the town of Bulakan, Bulakan province from  the Spanish forces during the second phase of the Philippine  Revolution against Spain; Filipino revolutionaries some weeks ago earlier scored major victories in the province,  capturing and taking the station in Bigaa, Bulacan, which was garrisoned by 24 men of the Spanish Infantry and Rural Guards and taking control of nine (9) other Bulacan towns; earlier in 1897, he gained some level of revolutionary fame when he led an assault on the Spanish barracks in the town convent of Paombong in Bulakan, permitting him to gain the confidence of, and be included in the circle of revolutionary leaders by, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, leader of the second phase of the Himagsikan;  Gregorio took part in the earlier Propaganda Movement, such as in  helping his uncle Marcelo H. del Pilar clandestinely circulate anti-friar materials and copies of the illegal propaganda periodical, La Solidaridad and then later joined the  secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kagalanggalangang Katipunan  nang  manga Anak nang  Bayan (KKK) then led by Supreme President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro who was subsequently deposed and then ordered assassinated/executed by Aguinaldo in May 1897; one of the youngest generals of the  Filipino forces, Gregorio del Pilar will soon be promoted  brigadier-general and will also be responsible for the  successful repulsion of the imperialist United States invaders in  the Battle of Quingua (Plaridel) where Bald Eagle enemy officer Col. John M.  Stotsenberg  will be killed by valiant Filipino freedom-fighters in April 1899 during the early phase of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914).

Saturday, June 23, 2012


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy changes the form of  government from  Dictatorial to Revolutionary following the  recent Declaration of Philippine Independence when most but  not yet all of the provinces and cities have been liberated by the Filipino patriots during the second phase of the Revolution against Spain; President Aguinaldo, who has acted upon the  advice of Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, his chief adviser, also issues a  decree establishing a Revolutionary Committee abroad;  unknown to Aguinaldo, who earlier forged an alliance with American Admiral George Dewey to fight Spain and subsequently apparently duped into stupidly thinking that the rising  imperialist nation the United States of America is an ally,  the two colonial countries are to later sign a peace protocol to halt Spanish-American War hostilities,  thus 'authorizing' the Bald Eagle nation to occupy and hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty set to  define the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines; Spain and the U.S will stage the infamous Mock Battle of Manila to falsely show to the world that it is the Bald Eagle soldiers instead of the Filipinos who have defeated the Spaniards, sign the  Treaty of Paris that will ridiculously and baselessly 'cede' the Philippines  to the imperialist U.S. and by February 1899, the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) will commence.

Friday, June 22, 2012


1900 - Sixteen months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914) but after the invading imperialist United States forces have arrested some key people of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Gen. Arthur McArthur, the assigned American 'military ruler,' offers former Philippine Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini y Maranan amnesty in exchange for swearing fealty to the Bald Eagle flag; Mabini, considered as the "Brains of the [second phase of] the Revolution," was jailed for being "a most active agitator" [translation: patriot] and persistently and defiantly refusing amnesty, and maintaining correspondence with insurgents [translation: defenders of the Philippine Republic]; even when Mabini will finally take his oath of allegiance to the US in 1903 after two years of being exiled to Guam in his yearning to return to his homeland shortly before his death from illness, Mabini will supposedly resume his patriotic work of agitating for independence; it is in exile that Mabini will write "The Philippine Revolution" based on his memoirs of the Himagsikan against Spain, including the part of the "crime" of the "assassination" of the Supreme President of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan Andres Bonifacio y de Castro on orders of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy under whose short-lived presidency Mabini served as key adviser and Prime Minister.

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Thursday, June 21, 2012


Pedro Paterno - autonomist/traitor
1899 - During the early phase of the bloody and protracted  Filipino-American War  (1899-1914), Pedro Paterno and Felipe Buencamino, "autonomists" dubbed by Gen. Antonio Luna y Novicio as traitors  to Philippine independence,  present to the invader North Americans their  "peace" proposals; on this same day in 1900, one year and five months after the greedy and bullying United States invaded the fledgling Philippine  Republic, Gen. Arthur MacArthur, assigned to be the military 'ruler' of the Philippine Islands, plays the propaganda game  by issuing an 'amnesty' decree to the native defenders and insanely calling  the rightful war staged by Filipinos as 'insurrection' against  the US; only more than a year earlier around May 1898, the emerging imperialist Bald Eagle nation through Admiral George Dewey forged an alliance with the Filipino revolutionaries to fight Spain, deceptively promising--along with other military/diplomatic Bald Eagle leaders such as US Consul in Singapore and Hongkong Rounseville Wildman and E. Spencer Pratt--that America will honor Filipino independence; subsequently, Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, leader of the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, will stupidly allow the free entry of American soldiers into the archipelago, thus enabling the future enemy imperialist forces to position themselves for the Mock Battle of Manila that will wrongly show the world that the colonial Spaniards in the islands were defeated by the US forces instead of the Filipino revolutionaries, and subsequently, facilitate American invasion of the Philippines.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012


1899 -  10,000  Murata rifles, 6,000,000 rounds of ammunition, and other war supplies purchased by Mariano Ponce from the Japanese start sailing aboard the Nonubiki Maru from Nagasaki to the Philippines four months into the Filipino-American War  (1899-1914); earlier in  September 1898, Ponce and F. Lichaucho had sought approval  for arms purchase in a letter to Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, Foreign Affairs Minister and chief adviser of President  Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, stating that Japanese  officials are inclined to favor the Philippine cause against the North American imperialist aggression although they only wish to avoid "the possibility of a conflict with...  the Yankee one"; unfortunately, the privately-charted Japanese steamer will sink during a typhoon in the South China Sea before reaching the Philippines, the Bald Eagle nation through Admiral George Dewey had some 13 months earlier forged an alliance with Aguinaldo to fight Spain, deceptively promising the then-revolutionary leader that the United States would honor Filipino independence, only to instigate the Phil-Am War and manipulate news about it in the bid of US President William McKinley to make the Senate vote for the annexation [read: invasion] of the Southeast Asian archipelago and to approve the Treaty of Paris; the New York Times will erroneously report that the report about the arms shipment is false based on a supposed story in a Tokyo newspaper, saying that while Japanese:
"...admire the pluck of the Filipino people, who belong to the same race and with whom the Japanese have had some close relations in the past [they] are not badly disposed toward the Americans."

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Tuesday, June 19, 2012


1861 - Jose Rizal (José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda), one of the two future implied national heroes of the Philippine Republic, is born as the  seventh child of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo in Calamba in Laguna province  during the Spanish colonial rule  in the Southeast Asian archipelago; along with Marcelo H. del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena,  he will form the great triumvirate of the reformist Propaganda movement that  will aim to awaken Spain as to the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to make for a closer and more equal association of the archipelago and  supposed motherland, Spain; Rizal's patriotic writings, particularly the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, will  significantly inspire the other national hero, Andres Bonifacio y de  Castro, into organizing in 1892 the nationalistic secret society aiming for complete separation from colonial Spain, the  Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK) that would transform into a revolutionary government  in 1896;  Rizal would be arrested, tried, and found guilty by a Spanish kangaroo court martial (and subsequently executed) on charges of sedition, rebellion, and conspiracy in connection with the Philippine Revolution;  following the discovery of the Katipunan, Supreme President Bonifacio will seek  Rizal's advice with regards the launching of Himagsikan, which the latter will later disown and condemn in his belief that the Filipino revolutionaries should first be fully armed and prepared before taking on the Spaniards.

Monday, June 18, 2012


Andres Bonifacio  y de Castro         -         Apolinario Mabini  y Maranan        -          Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy

1898 - Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy issues a degree reorganizing the provinces and municipalities through the  election of Popular Assemblies, whose heads the town chiefs then [elect] the provincial councils; Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, sees the reorganization as the "direct link to the masses" of Aguinaldo, who over a year earlier ascended to the leadership of the Philippine Revolution against Spain by ousting and then ordering  the assassination-cum-execution of Gat Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Supreme President of the mass-based secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government , Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan Supremo Andres Bonifacio; the decree came six days after Aguinaldo proclaimed  the country's Independence from the yoke of some three hundreds years of  Spanish colonial rule following the second phase of the Philippine Revolution marked by the return from exile  of Aguinaldo and a number of revolutionary generals who broke the peace pact they earlier forged with the enemy colonial Spaniards;  Aguinaldo had some two months earlier forged an'alliance' with the emerging imperialist nation, the United States of America, to fight Spain after being conned into believing the  deceptive promises made by Admiral George Dewey, et al. that the Bald Eagle nation will supposedly honor the independence of the Filipinos. 

Sunday, June 17, 2012


Hen. Manuel Tinio y Bundok
1877 - Birth of Manuel Tinio y Bundoc, the youngest Filipino general in the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War  (1899-1914) ; Tinio will join the secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan under the group of Gen. Mariano Llanera in 1896 soon after studying at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran; he would prove to be a rather effective military leader, launching a number of successful attacks and  battles or skirmishes against the Spaniards; Tinio would be named a Brigadier General upon the establishment of the "Gobierno Departamental de las Siete Provincias en el Centro de Luzon" and would join the revolutionary leaders agreeable to the late 1897 Pact of Biak-na-Bato that forged a truce with the enemy Spaniards; during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, he will eventually assume the second-in-command position over the first zone of Nueva Ecija Tinio, being able to seize, along with Col. Tecson, some 1,050 rifles and 500,000 cartridges from the Spanish Garrison in San Isidro; during the Fil-Am War,  Brig. Gen. Tinio will figure in the effective guerrilla ambush tactic against the imperialist American invaders in the roads and strategic locations in the Ilokos region, which he will appraise as follows:
I have endeavored to propagate and implant here the society of the Katipunan which has produced surprising results. I have prepared the spirit of the inhabitants so that aside from inculcating in them the fecund germ of the high ideals of liberty, they have come to show implacable hatred towards the invader, passion which some citizens, armed with only bolos have manifested to the Americans who dared to travel from their detachment.”

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Saturday, June 16, 2012


Imperialist Consul Oscar F. Williams
1898 - During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, American Consul Oscar F. Williams sends a dispatch to Secretary Wm. R. Day reporting that the Filipino revolutionaries have defeated the colonial forces at practically all encounters and have taken control of the northern provinces and the entire bay coast, save for the city of Manila;   the success of the Filipinos in breaking the yoke of Spanish colonization, however, will later be stolen by the Americans who will stage the Mock Battle of Manila to make it appear that it is they who defeated the Spaniards after duping Pres. Emilio F. Aguinaldo into freely allowing the entry of  the forces of the emerging imperialist United States into the Philippine archipelago supposedly as friendly troops; the second phase of the Himagsikan led by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (who deposed and ordered the  assassination-cum-execution of revolutionary President/Supremo Andres Bonifacio y de Castro) intersected with the Spanish-American War, with Admiral George Dewey and other Dewey and other Bald Eagle military and diplomatic officials conning Aguinaldo into stupidly agreeing to an "alliance" to fight Spain, making verbal assurances that the U.S. was supposedly an 'ally' that would honor Philippine Independence, a promise that would be savagely broken  by the first Bald Eagle's war of imperialism, the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

Friday, June 15, 2012


Hen. Vito L. Belarmino

1857 - Vito Belarmino y Loyola, one of the most brilliant Filipino military leaders during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and  during the bloody and protracted  Filipino-American War (1899-1914), is born in Silang, Cavite; Belarmino would join the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan and engage the Spaniards in various skirmishes, including the 1896 attack he and Vicente Giron  will launch against colonial Spanish guards and a convent in Silang;  later, during the Phil-Am War, Belarmino would be given command of Albay province to establish a [local[ republican government; he and controversial Gen. Jose Paua (Pawa) will put up a valiant fight to defend Legaspi,  Albay against the Bald Eagle forces led by Gen. William Kobe;  following the fall of Tabaco and Naga tragically in February 1900 to the invading imperialist United States forces, Paua--who played an important role in the power grab from, and elimination of, revolutionary President Andres Bonifacio when he carried out Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's "dead or alive" order to abduct the Supremo--will soon surrender to the enemy Americans but Gen. Belarmino will for a time persist in his patriotic duty and will defiantly organize a" guerrilla outfit [to] repeatedly [harass] American installations in the Bicol region;" due to lack of ammunition, however, Belarmino decided to surrender to the enemy U.S. forces on July 4, 1901. 

Thursday, June 14, 2012


U.S.-sponsored Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon
1941 - President Manuel L. Quezon y Molina   signs the maternity-leave bill giving  women in government service 60 days maternity leave with full pay on top of the usual sick and vacation leaves during the period of imperialist American Occupation and several months before the Japanese occupies the Philippines in World War II; Quezon's advisers had recommended against the bill on economic grounds but the President, perceived to be a  champion of the underdog,  remarked "I’ll sign that bill if it bankrupts the treasury,” before promptly reaching for a pen; Quezon's American-sponsored "Commonwealth period" presidency had exhibited progressiveness in terms of women's rights and welfare as he earlier supported the women's suffragist movement declaring about a decade earlier: "I have always been and always will be in favor of woman suffrage."

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Wednesday, June 13, 2012


Battle of Zapote Bridge (River)
American invaders captured Filipino cannons, 13 June 1899
1899 - The (second)  Battle of Zapote Bridge (River), one of the fiercest battles and actually the largest single battle next to the earlier Battle of Manila during the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) involving 5,000 Filipinos and 3,000 enemy American forces, is won by the imperialist forces under Gen. Henry Ware Lawton of the invading United States;  the crucial battle began with some 1,000 valiant Filipinos in prepared position stoutly defending the bridge against the invading Companies F and I of the 21st Infantry under Major Boylebut; fighting with much less inferior firepower, the Filipinos under Gen. Artemio Ricarte and Mariano Noriel ultimately yielded to the vile American invaders; the battle lasted for hours until the much better armed Bald Eagle  soldiers drove the Filipino freedom fighters out of their lines forcing them to withdraw inland as a rear guard held off the imperialists for a time; Lawton, who would later be killed by the men of Gen. Licerio Geronimo later that year, will remark  on the uncanny bravery of the Filipinos shown int he battle as the New York Times will report that the Filipino army is "the largest and best organized body of men which had yet met American troops"; the battle would help make fledgling Philippine President Emilio F. Aguinaldo decide to reform the regular Army into guerrilla style units to better engage the enemy Americans and capitalize on the Filipinos' endemic knowledge of the Southeast Asian archipelago's landscape.

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Tuesday, June 12, 2012


1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, leader of the so-called second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, proclaims the Independence of the Philippines "under the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," that is the United States of America and thereby ceasing "to have any allegiance to the Crown of Spain" and unfurling a blue, red and yellow flag that could have been partly inspired by the Stars-and Stripes banner of the imperialist United States; ironically, within eight months, the Bald Eagle nation will show the pathetically deceived Aguinaldo its true color as it invades the fledgling Southeast Asian republic by instigating the hostilities with the Filipino troops under a vile pre-arranged plan on February 4, 1899, with the resulting savage Filipino-American War (1899-1914) lasting for over ten bloody ten years; more than a year earlier, during the second phase of the Himagsikan that intersected with the Spanish-American War, Dewey and other American military and diplomatic officials began to con Aguinaldo into stupidly agreeing to an "alliance" to fight Spain, making verbal assurances that the U.S. was supposedly an 'ally' that would honor Philippine Independence;  with Aguinaldo allowing the free entry of the future enemy American soldiers, the U.S. managed to position themselves for the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely made it look like that the Americans--instead of the Filipino revolutionaries--defeated the Spaniards in the archipelago, and then eventually for the invasion of the Philippines that led to the Fil-Am War, America's first war of colonial expansion.

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Monday, June 11, 2012


Pangulong Carlos Garcia y Polistico
1971 - Former Philippine President Carlos Garcia y Polistico is elected president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention that was assembled to revise the 1935 Philippine Charter during the second term of President Ferdinand Marcos y Edralin; Garcia, who served as the head of state of the Philippine Republic from 1957-1961, will die from heart attack within only three days from election as Con-Con head, permitting the constitutional body's vice-president, former Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal y Pangan, to take charge of the writing of the country's new charter; a poet, lawyer, former law professor, congressman and three-time governor of Bohol, Garcia was elected Senator for three terms before running successfully for Vice-President and then for President in 1957; born to middle-class parents Ambrosia Polistico and Policronio Garcia on November 4, 1896, the year when the Himagsikan erupted, he was known as the "Bard from Bohol" and the "Prince of Visayan Poets| before entering politics; a topnotcher during the 1923 bar examinations, Garcia will be remembered for his administration's near iconic legacy  of "Filipino First" policy which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.

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Sunday, June 10, 2012


Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo - Admiral George Dewey
1898 - During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, United States Consul-General in Singapore E. Spencer Pratt, congratulates Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo for his "recent military achievements" and claims that his arrangement for the latter's meeting with US Admiral Spencer Dewey is right; however, diplomatic and military officials of the Bald Eagle government--Pratt, US Consul in Hongkong Rounsenville Wildman, and Dewey, who weeks back forged an alliance with Aguinaldo in fighting Spain--have actually been conning Aguinaldo into stupidly believing that America is an ally that will honor Filipino independence; earlier on April 22, 1898, Pratt conferred with Aguinaldo to discuss strategy against Spain, promising Philippine independence under the U.S. protection as Dewey thereafter deceptively promised the same tune, categorically telling Aguinaldo that the America will recognize Philippine Independence supposedly because "America is exceedingly well off as regards territory, revenue, and resources and therefore needs no colonies;" the true imperialistically wicked color of America will later be shown in the Mock Battle of Manila when Americans will make it falsely appear that the U.S. troops and not the Filipino revolutionaries are the ones who overcome the colonial Spaniards and most clearly, in the Bald Eagle's deliberate instigation of the Philippine-American War (1899-1914) on February 4 1899 as part of the US President William McKinley's vile prearranged plan to trick the US Senate into approving the invasion of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation; the New York Times will later report about an intimate of Pratt being privy to conferences between Aguinaldo and the Consul-General in Singapore, with Pratt promptly engaging in telegraphic communication with Dewey and wherein the American side has "accepted" the Filipinos' help against Spain amidst the revolutionary general's "policy... of the independence of the Philippines" [with] American protection [being] desirable temporarily" similar to that extended in Cuba; the New York Times report that will come out two weeks after the outbreak of the Fil-Am War will point to the sinister intent of the American government to deceive the Filipinos:
"It was with the assistance of Aguinaldo as a guide that Dewey entered the bay, and subsequent events proved that Aguinaldo has kept all his promises but the interesting feature of this incident is that no official announcements or publications of the facts have emanated from the Government at Washington."

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Saturday, June 9, 2012


1945 - Manuel Roxas y Acuna is elected President of the Senate during a special session of Congress called by President Sergio Osmena y Suico following the defeat of the Japanese and the end of World War II but with the Philippines still a colony of the United States; this early, Roxas already has set his on the sights on the Philippine presidency, with American Gen. Douglas MacArthur and High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt supporting him, and in the elections of 1946,  will win amidst Osmena's refusal to campaign; following the granting of Philippine "independence" in 1946, Roxas would be responsible for the neocolonial arrangement of the Philippines and  the imperialist Bald Eagle nation, with the lopsided and inimical-to-Filipino-interests RP-US Military Bases Agreement (MBA) and so-called Parity Rights to be successfully pushed by his administration; the MBA will grant  American access to 22 military, naval, and air bases in the  Southeast Asian nation, with Roxas lobbying for its passage in the Philippine Congress despite the MBA despite being a mere international executive agreement on the American side, not having been ratified by the U.S. legislature; on the other hand, the  Parity Rights amendment to the 1935 Constitution will ridiculously give American citizens the same equal rights as Filipinos to exploit the natural resources of the country.

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Friday, June 8, 2012


1900 - Gen. Pio del Pilar, a controversial officer of the First Philippine Republic, is taken prisoner  at Guadalupe, Rizal by imperialist United States forces during the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914);  born in  Makati, Rizal in 1865 to Isaac Isidro y del Pilar and Antonia Castaneda, Pio del Pilar will infamously go down in history for betraying two iconic Katipunan figures--Supreme President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro and Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia; during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Pio del Pilar was a signatory to the 1897 Naik Military Agreement that declared several Filipino revolutionaries (referring to but not naming the camp of Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy) as having committed treason against the nation and the revolution by trying to forge a peace pact with the enemy Spanish colonial forces; he will soon switched to Aguinaldo's side, even advising that revolutionary President Bonifacio be executed following the Supremo's kangaroo court martial; the general will later also betray Gen. Ricarte's attempt to reunite Filipino military generals and rekindle the fire of the Philippine Revolution, this time against the Bald Eagle invaders;  he will initially refuse to swear allegiance to the enemy American flag and will be exiled along with Ricarte, Apolinario Mabini and other leaders of the Aguinaldo's Philippine Republic in 1901 but will relent and ultimately swear allegiance to the enemy imperialist American flag, renouncing all forms of revolution in the country; Pio del Pilar will also be involved in the sudden disappearance of his custodial responsibility,  Feliciano Jocson, a  Katipunan organizer who disapproved of Aguinaldo's Biak-na-Bato truce with the Spaniards and plotted to attack Manila before being arrested and turned over to del Pilar but soon disappearing [read: salvaged].

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Thursday, June 7, 2012


Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia, a.k.a "Vibora"
1904 - Gen. Artemio Ricarte y Garcia, the Filipino military official of the so-called First Philippine Republic who never swore allegiance to the imperialist United States of America, is confined at Bilibid Prison in Manila following his treacherous arrest while trying to drum up renewed support against the American invaders during the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914); also known as "Vibora" (viper), his Katipunan codename, Ricarte was earlier exiled to Guam, along with  Apolinario Mabini and other Filipino leaders, and later still, after adamantly refusing to swear allegiance to the Bald Eagle flag, to Hong Kong, but secretly returned to the the country to reunite with former members of the Philippine Army to try to rekindle the Philippine Revolution, this time against the invading enemy Bald Eagle forces; a reluctant officer of Emilio F. Aguinaldo's "Philippine Republic" who spoke of the fraudulent conduct of the Tejeros Convention that 'elected' Aguinaldo "President" and deposed revolutionary President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Ricarte will be thought of in history as the only Himagsikan general who never compromised the spirit of the 1896 Revolution; while in Japan, Ricarte will 'lead' from a distance the popular and radical "Ricartista movement" in Luzon and Visayas; while the promised arms from Japan will never come such that the new independentist uprising will not take off, the Ricarte movement will be a considerable potential force such that by 1914, it will be believed to count over 50,000 members, 60 percent of whom will be actively taking part in patriotic societies and undergoing military training in Manila. 

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Wednesday, June 6, 2012


Col. Francisco "Paco" Roman     -      Gen. Antonio Luna     -      Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
(Photo art: JB)

1899 - One day after his bodyguards murdered Gen. Antonio Luna y Novicio (and aide-de-camp Col. Francisco Roman), the perceived threat to his position as revolutionary leader, Dictator President Emilio Aguinaldo wires all the military chiefs in five northern provinces  to the effect that he is taking active direction of the military operations and that  he is establishing his temporary headquarters at Bamban, Tarlak four months into the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914); Aguinaldo would be widely blamed for setting a trap  for the assassination because he did not meet Luna despite his signed telegram calling the former to a conference and because it will be reported that his mother, looking out the window of the convent in Cabanatuan and witnessing at least part of the assassination, uttered: "Is he still breathing?"; it would later be reported that  Gen. Venancio Concepcion, then in Angeles, received a telegram from Aguinaldo at about the time of the Luna assassination informing the former that he (Aguinaldo) had taken over the control of military operations in the Central Luzon area and that, further, he  was on his way to Bamban which he will be using as his new temporary executive and military headquarters; Aguinaldo would also carry out loyalty checks and arrest of military subordinates loyal to Luna, with some being reportedly killed , including Major Manuel Bernal who would be tortured first before being liquidated.  

1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy,  issues a decree delineating the geographic and political divisions of provinces and appointing a military chief for each zone during the so-called second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain; one year and three weeks earlier, Aguinaldo tightly sealed his power grab against revolutionary President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, the Supreme President of the secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government  Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan when he ordered the 'dead or alive' seizure and kangaroo court martial and eventual  execution-cum-assassination of the Bonifacio brothers; Aguinaldo has claimed leadership of the revolution on the basis of the controversial and fraudulent March 1897 Tejeros Convention, reportedly marked by the use of pre-filled ballots and by scandalous irregularities that actually prompted its nullification by Bonifacio (who served as presiding officer) through the Acta de Tejeros the more progressive historians would condemn the Tejeros Convention as a coup and a counterrevolution, as Apolinario Mabini, who would serve as Aguinaldo's Prime Minister, would later decry the power grab from, and "assassination," of Bonifacio as constituting Aguinaldo's insubordination against the leader of the Katipunan and as the "first victory of personal ambition over true patriotism."

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Tuesday, June 5, 2012


Hen. Antonio Luna y Novicio

1899 - Gen. Antonio Luna y Novicio, Commanding General of the Philippine forces fighting the invading imperialist Bald Eagle forces during the Filipino-American War (1899-1914), is dastardly assassinated by bodyguards of President Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy at the stairs of the convent of Cabanatuan in the province of Nueva Ecija; the guilt for the murders (Luna's aide-de-camp has been also killed) would be widely ascribed to Aguinaldo because he summoned Luna to Cabanatuan with a signed telegram calling him to a conference and because during the murder, Aguinaldo's mother looked out the window and asked: "Is he still breathing?"; historian Teodoro Kalaw would  write that Aguinaldo also ordered  his other subordinates including Gen. Gregorio del Pilar to capture Gen. Luna 'dead or alive,' prompting the Bulakeno boy-general to leave for Bamban and Mabalacat to execute the bloody task although the President's bodyguards got to Luna first; the fiery Luna, who studied military science in Europe after being exiled on suspicion of being a Katipunero during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, is perhaps the most capable and efficient military leaders during the Fil-Am War, having been able to turn the Philippine Army into a considerably meritorious, better organized and enthusiastic force; dying at the age of 33, Luna's assassination would merit the comment of American Gen. Robert P. Hughes, saying that“The Filipinos had only one general, and they have killed him.”

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Monday, June 4, 2012


Hen. Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio   -   Hen. Isidoro Torres y Dayao
1898 - Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar y Sempio reports to Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy about the military operations undertaken primarily in Bulacan province during the so-called second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain: their success at capturing and taking the station in Bigaa, Bulacan, which was garrisoned by 24 men of the Spanish Infantry and Rural Guards; control of nine (9) Bulacan towns; engagement of the forces of Sr. Isidoro Torres y Dayao at Malolos against Macabebe volunteers and Spanish Infantry; as well as the agreement among well-learned residents of Malolos and neighboring towns for Torres to temporarily occupy the position of Dictator of the Zone; Torres, it should be noted, has refused to recognize the authority of Aguinaldo, at least during the time of the Biak-na-Bato peace pact forged by Aguinaldo a few months after the latter seized revolutionary leadership from, and eliminating via assassination-cum-execution Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, the Supreme President of the secret-society-turned-revolutionary-government  Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan that launched the Himagsikan in the bid to free the Philippines from the oppressive shackles of Spanish colonial rule and form an independent nation of an Austronesian-based race in the Southeast Asian archipelago..

Photo art: JB
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Sunday, June 3, 2012


1898 - Filipino troops take control of areas of Manila--Caloocan, Tondo, Santa Cruz, San Juan del Monte, Santolan as their counterparts in Zapote, Cavite province numbering only about 500 drive back the 3,500-strong enemy Spanish forces, while Spaniards in Calamba, Laguna surrender to Gen. Paciano Rizal following three days of fighting during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution against Spain; Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo-- who had earlier forged a truce with the enemy Spaniards within a few months after seizing revolutionary leadership from, and eliminating the Supremo of the underground-society-turned-revolutionary-government Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga  Anak nang Bayan,  President Andres Bonifacio y de Castro--returned two weeks earlier from self-exile to resume the Himagsikan apparently after being convinced by imperialist United States Admiral George Dewey; Aguinaldo has formed an alliance with Dewey who has deceptively assured him believe that the Bald Eagle nation is a friend and ally of the Philippines and will honor its independence from Spain; in nine days' time, the Southeast Asian archipelago will declare its Independence but eight months later, the U.S. will begin its formal invasion of the fledgling Republic after instigating hostilities to trigger what would turn out to be the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914).

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