Saturday, January 14, 2012


Anti-imperialist Sen. George F. Hoar

1899 - Sen. George F. Hoar of the United States submits what would be an unsuccessful resolution to  his country's Congress declaring that  the Philippines should be free and  independent; Hoar's resolution comes some three weeks after the invasion.cum. benevolent assimilation' proclamation of Bald Eagle nation President William McKinley claiming American "sovereignty" and ordering the "immediate occupation" of the former Spanish colony in Southeast Asia; Hoar, a prominent senator from Concord Massachusetts, is an anti-imperialist who denounces the ferocious issue of American imperialism, both in the Philippines and in Puerto Rico; Hoar would be almost alone  trying to prevent the imperialist course of his country and countering the voraciously vile pro-imperialist, Sen. Albert J. Beveridge who defends the supposed right of America to subjugate 'savage peoples and foreign governments' leading to the bloody and protracted Filipino-American War (1899-1914).

1899 - Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo, leader of the fledgling Philippine  Republic, enumerates the reward to be given to those who would risk their  lives fighting for the independence of the country amidst the enemy United States' proclamation of aggression ("Benevolent Assimilation"); in response to yesterday's telegraph by Gen. Manuel Noriel and Col. Juan Cailles which asks for his earlier ultimatum against the imperialist United States and terms or rewards the government has scheduled, Aguinaldo writes: "Those who would be heroes will have a large quantity of money, extraordinary rewards, promotions, crosses of Biyak-na-bato, Marquis of Malate, Ermita, Count of Manila, etc. besides the congratulations of our worshipful country for their patriotism. The ultimatum has not been sent, but it will be within a few days"; eight days earlier, upon learning of the full contents of Bald Eagle President McKinley's aggression proclamation, Aguinaldo issued a counter-proclamation but which he soon softened by withdrawing the "open hostilities" phrase in another counter-proclamation.

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