Wednesday, January 11, 2012


1897 - Thirteen Filipino martyrs,  are  executed by the colonial Spanish  authorities in Bagumbayan, Manila, more than four months after the  outbreak of the Philippine Revolution;  executed on this day and to be known as the "13 Martyrs of Bagumbayan" are Domingo T. Franco, Moises Salvador, Francisco L. Roxas, Luis Enciso Villareal, Jose  Dizon, Lt. Benedicto P. Nijaga, Corporal Jeronimo M. CristobalAntonio S. Salazar, Ramon Padilla, Faustino  Villaruel, Baulio Rivera, Numeriano R.  Adriano, and Eustaquio Manalak; the execution is the second to the last implementation of capital punishment on convicted Filipino freedom-fighters as part of the cruel Spanish policy to instigate fear in the bid to contain the Revolution, the others being on September 4, September 11, November 3, December 14, December  29, and December 30 of 1896 and January 4 and February 6 of this year.

1902 - Honorata "Atang" de la Rama, future Filipino  national artist and "queen of zarzuela and the kundiman," is born in Pandacan, Manila; her constant exposure to zarzuela music played by her uncle, composer Leon Ignacio, figured in her love for the performing arts, becoming the first Filipina movie actress; de la Rama will graduate with a degree in B.S. Pharmacy and will take up voice, violin, and piano lessons before studying diction with fellow future national artist Jovita Fuentes; Atang de la Rama will popularize the song "Nabasag ang Banga" by playing the lead role in the 1917 zarzuela "Dalagang Bukid" that would later be made into the first Tagalog full-length feature movie two years later; believing that zarzuela and kundiman genuinely reflect Filipino identity, she will go to great lenghts to propagate and popularize the art forms, traveling to tribal groups and performing before revolutionary organizations such as the Hukbalahap, the Sakdal and the Colorum. 

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