Saturday, July 7, 2012


1892 - Andres Bonifacio y de Castro and other radical members of La Liga Filipina found the Filipino secret society Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan  (KKK)  with the expressed aim of complete separation from colonial Spain a few days after the arrest of polymath and reformist patriot, Jose Mercado Rizal; the concept of the Katipunan, which will turn into a revolutionary government four years later, is said to be distinct from the reformist aims of Rizal and other ilustrado propagandists in that it wields the concept of building a state that is not only politically independent from Spain but as well have moral, civic, and political goals to be constructed from the indigenous perspective(s) of all the islands--a nation they will call  TAGALOG [referring] to all born in the Philippines from whatever ethnic group they belong; the Katipunan would launch the Himagsikan (Revolution) against Spain in August 1896 under the leadership of the Bonifacio as Supreme President.

1899 - More than a month after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo had Gen. Antonio Luna assassinated, dispatches from Manila contain the statement that General Luna’s death has strengthened Aguinaldo’s leadereship. “Luna’s supporters are now outwardly loyal to Aguinaldo.”; Aguinaldo has been widely blamed for setting a trap for Luna's assassination on June 5, 1899, 5 months into the Philippine-American War (1899-1904), because he did not meet Luna despite his signed telegram calling him to a conference and because during the murder, Aguinaldo's mother looked out the window and asked: Is he still breathing?"; historian Teodoro Kalaw would write that Aguinaldo also ordered his other subordinates including Gen. Gregorio del Pilar to capture Gen. Luna 'dead or alive,' prompting the Bulakeno boy-general to leave for Bamban and Mabalacat to execute the bloody task although the President's bodyguards got to Luna first.

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