Friday, July 13, 2012


1901 - Gen. Miguel Malvar y Carpio succeeds as Commander-in-Chief of the  beleaguered Philippine Republic following  President Emilio F. Aguinaldo's treacherous capture by, and hasty swearing of fealty to, the imperialist United States forces nearly 2 1/2 years into the protracted and bloody Filipino-American War (1899-1914); more than three years earlier, Bald Eagle Commodore George Dewey had earlier met with Aguinaldo to strike an alliance, with Filipinos in his nation's separate war with Spain, deceptively making assurances that America is intends to honor Philippine independence;  by August 1898, the US and Spain wickedly staged the infamous Mock Battle of Manila that falsely showed to the world that it was the Americans instead of the Filipinos defeated the Spaniards in the capital, Manila; in five months' time, the Treaty of Paris will be signed, with the virtually ousted-by-Filipinos Spain ridiculously 'ceding' the Philippines to the Bald Eagle nation for $20,000,000 US, and on February 4, 1899, American generals will deliberately instigate the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914) in the nefarious bid of the US President William McKinley to make their Congress approve the Treaty of Paris and the annexation [translation: invasion] of the fledgling Southeast Asian nation; Malvar would reverse Aguinaldo's policy of upholding elite interests,  giving importance to the role of peasantry in the anti-imperialist resistance and resulting to covert support of the townspeople to the Filipino freedom fighters while pretending to cooperate with the North American colonizers; by December 1901, Malvar would shift from defensive to offensive campaigns against a number of towns held by the enemy Americans; it would only be after US Gen. Franklin Bell's horrific reconcentration campaign that would break the back of the resistance movement in Batangas  province that Gen. Malvar will surrender to enemy flag in 1902 ; other Filipino guerrila leaders, such as Macario Sakay  and Simeon Ola, and Muslim compatriots in the South will continue  the valiant war against the heavily armed North American  invaders until about 1913. 

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