|Lope K. Santos|
1879 - Lope K. Santos, future foremost Filipino Tagalog grammarian, writer, politician, and labor leader and founder of Kapatirang Alagad ni Bonifacio, Inc. and Taliba ng Inang Wika, is born in Pasig, Rizal; Santos, who will help Macario Sakay et al. in organizing the 1901 Nactionalista Party and become a future Senator, will include as his literary masterpieces "Banaag at Sikat," an opus tackling socialism's rise in the Philippines, and the translation into Tagalog of "Aves de Rapina," the scathing El Renacimiento editorial attacking the corruption of the colonial American Interior Secretary Dean C. Worcester.
1890 - Filipino patriot, reformist, and polymath Jose Mercado Rizal delivers a speech in the Masonic lodge "Solidaridad," No. 53, in Madrid Spain; therein, Rizal dwells on the subject of virtue, which he defines as "the constant performance of duty," explaining the concepts and practices of duties.
1903 - Filipino revolutionist and freedom-fighter Simeon A. Ola surrenders to the enemy Col. Harry H. Bandholtz of the imperialist Bald Eagle nation 4 1/2 years into the protracted Philippine American War (1899-1914); the teniente de cuadrillos of Guinobatan, Albay in Bicol province, Ola fought in the Philippine Revolution against Spain, becoming the Secretary of Finance of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's Revolutionary Government, and then valiantly leading his troops in persistent guerilla attacks; owing to the atrocious reconcentration system utilized by the invader Americans, Ola ultimately decided to surrender to the enemy to spare the civilian natives from the imperialist forces' cruel-level military operations.
1943 - The Philippine National Assembly during the Japanese Occupation holds its general session to elect the President of the Republic and the legislative body's speaker; Jose P. Laurel is elected President and Benigno A. Aquino as Speaker; with the conclusion of World War II and Japanese surrender following the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the Second Philippine Republic will be dissolved by President Laurel on August 17, 1945 to return the Philippines to the state of being a colony of the imperialist United States.