Monday, March 12, 2012


Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc

1900 - Filipino military leader Gen. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc instructs commanders of the flying columns under his jurisdiction to intensify their guerrilla operations against enemy American forces; the youngest general of the fledgling Philippine Republic, Tinio has proved to be one of the most efficient surviving Filipino military leaders during the guerrilla warfare phase of the bloody and protracted Philippine-American War (1899-1914), having turned the whole Ilocos region and its population into an espionage network marked by a warning system that apprises the Filipino freedom fighters of approaching imperialist forces; earlier, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Tinio has won a number of skirmishes against the Spaniards, possibly paving the way for his appointment as Brigadier General during the formation of “Gobierno Departamental de las Siete Provincias en el Centro de Luzon"; Tinio, unfortunately, will surrender and pledge allegiance to the imperialist United States flag on May 1, 1901, soon after President Emilio F. Aguinaldo's capture and prompt decision to swear loyalty to the Bald Eagle invaders; in line with the pale-skinned invaders' policy of co-optation, his surrender and allegiance will be rewarded, with Tinio serving as Nueva Ecija governor and, later, as the first director of the colonial Bureau of Labor.

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