Wednesday, January 26, 2011


 War ensign, 1785-1843 & National Flag,1843-1873-1931
1821 - Spanish colonial Governor-General for the Philippines, Mariano Fernandez de Folguerax, along with Archbishop Luis de Arrejola, issue  instructions for the election of Filipino deputies to the Spanish Cortes; earlier, before Mexican independence in 1821, the Philippine archipelago was directly governed from Madrid and the Spanish Cortes of 1810  had declared Spain's overseas provinces to be integral parts of the monarchy, allowing for Philippine representatives; Filipino representation to the Spanish Cortes would only last for three constitutional periods because in 1837, the Liberal Cortes would decree rule of the overseas provinces by special laws; beginning in 1863, the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico would be ruled by governors-general but unlike in Cuba and Puerto Rico, which are Spanish colonies where majority of the population either are Spanish or has Spanish descent, Philippine representation to the Cortes would never be restored and  other rights would even be denied the Filipinos.

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