1861 - Julian Felipe, future Filipino revolutionary and composer of the music of the Philippine national anthem, is born in Cavite during the Spanish colonial period; Felipe would be lucky to escape execution by the Spaniards when he was arrested along with those who will be dubbed the "Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite; he would later be tasked by revolutionary leader Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo with composing a "more stirring and majestic" march and will come up with the "Marcha Nacional Filipina," which will be applauded by Aguinaldo and the rest of the Filipino generals present; the following day on June 12, 1896 during the proclamation of Philippine Independence, the new national hymn. Felipe's masterpiece, would be played by the San Francisco de Malabon Band as the Philippine flag sewn by Marcella Agoncillo is hoisted during that historic occasion; about a year later, lyrics would be added to the march--Jose Palma's poem in the Spanish language entitled "Filipina."
Manila during World War II
1948 - Manuel A. Roxas, President of the former American colony the Philippines, grants amnesty to everyone accused of collaboration with the Japanese during World War II; the beneficiaries include President Jose P. Laurel, and his entire cabinet that served during the Japanese Occupation period; President Laurel had earlier been imprisoned by the American colonial authorities following the defeat of the Japanese forces, with his family's fortunes drying up because of the legal fees incurred in his defense; the amnesty proclamation comes one year and one day after the American-sponsored Philippine Congress held its first post-World War II session, more than nine months after Roxas' election into the presidency, and more than five months after the imperialist United States granted the Philippines political "independence" to the Philippines through the American Congress' Joint Resolution No. 93.