Friday, August 3, 2012


1900 - One and one-half years into the protracted and bloody period of American  invasion (Filipino-American War, 1899-1914), the President of the Philippine  Republic-on-the-run Emilio Aguinaldo issues a  manifesto wherein he appeals to the Filipinos  not to listen to  native collaborators but, rather, to continue fighting without end in defence of their rights until victory against the imperialist enemy is achieved and independence won and recognized.

1901 - exactly a year later, following the capture of several officials and their subsequent swearing of  fealty to the imperialist Bald Eagle nation, including Aguinaldo,  Gen. Ambrosio Mojica, Gen. Vicente Lukban of the Samar-Leyte command issues a  proclamation, part of which says: 
"Nothing, in truth,  is more natural than that we should continue the  struggle, whatever be the obstacles placed in our way  and despite the capture of him who was our  generals;… We should let the world know that the  Philippine army is captured, another at once comes  forward and succeeds him; that we fight, not at the  suggestion of others, but because of our own personal  convictions; and that, finally, we are worthy of  independence and of universal respect, because we  know our rights and how to die in their defense…"

1898 - In a speech at Kawit in Cavite province, Emilio F. Aguinaldo, President of the fledgling Philippine Republic, pleads with local officials to keep unity, peace, and upright conduct; the appeal comes amidst apprehensions expressed by Felipe Agoncillo and Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's diplomatic official and key adviser, respectively, over the former's supposed "alliance" with the Americans, with some Filipino soldiers already thinking at that point they they might need to fight a war with the pale-skinned US forces.

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